Mega sports competitive outcomes
In the past decadesports-mega events have had an enormous economic growth with their labor firms and investments for developing a global standard in their countries.This has resulted in different outcomes because of the global strive to be competitive.
With a view to FIFA world cup in Brazil 2014, the event attracted millions of international visitors, which were the tool for their economic beneficial establishment. As a result, the city has started to characterize inequality and urban poverty. Rio de Janeiro has 1000 slums communities where about 20% of Brazil’s population live. (Casakin & Bernado) These communities have experienced drastic changes in their environment because of the global strive to be competitive. Therefore, the question is whether this event has strengthened its position as a global city with an increase of urban poverty, where people are living in informal settlements.
The aim is to understand the general phenomenon by investigating how London has been affected by these sports mega-events, and not to improve one specific area but to understand how locals are managing the transitions.
Global competitiveness, Place identity
Globalization has become a catch phrase in architecture. It is an outgoing dialogue between architects and society. The process of globalization has drastically changed the conditions around the world nevertheless the reduced impact of distance such as transport systems and networks. However, these big outcomes have not been equally distributed, and the integration is selective due to informal settlements. The global cities index (GCI) 2012 measures global engagement of cities across five dimensions, business, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience and political engagement. The global influences whit these factors analyzes the strength and weaknesses of cities in development (Casakin &Bernado). Improvements in infrastructure and reductions in instability and competitions, cities are likely to exhibit different future behaviors. It is a psychological structure that has involved people and spaces to grow with fragile patterns.
The phrase ‘place identity’ conveys many different dimensions.
Hummon 1990 has focused on the distinctiveness associated with being city, town or country person, the way the resident feel toward their personal lifestyle have a specific type of relationship with their home environment (Casakin & Bernado, 64).
A place is more than just a location. When people refer to their places, they consider other elements that are beneficial. Culture is one element of a place. People will want to identify with a culture of their place. This makes it difficult for people to adapt other culture. Changing an environment that people have been attached to is quite difficult. However, it happens for some societies that borrow culture from other societies. This is done in the process of globalization. It is therefore a decision that nations make on whether to adapt a new culture or not. London is a city that has a strong culture, and people are connected to their place.
Casakin & Bernado (35) argue that a place has three fundamental components. These components include physical elements, setting and meaning. The components are interrelated and it is quite difficult to separate them. People are connected with others and their world. They form strong relationships with one another and aim at protecting their identity. Cities that are well developed protect their culture and would want others to adopt their culture. They undergo transformation from different events that increase their development. The experiences that nations go through in building their identity motivate them to preserve their national identity. Graves-brown, Gamble & Jones (3) suggest that the past has place an essential role in the construction of identity and political legitimacy. London as one of the European nation has gone through series of changes to achieve its identity today. London has developed through hosting sporting events, but, it remains strong in preserving its cultural identity.
London has a Legacy Corporation that works towards ensuring success of its people and visitors. Through sporting events, London has regenerated its urban places. Even though the city has interacted with many cities during the sporting events, Londoners choose their culture over others. It is due to the attachment and perception they have about their culture. When people have a strong relationship with one another and the place they live, it becomes difficult to change their perceptions about their culture. A place is the root of people’s identity. It is an environment that has been built to be a home to the citizens. The activities and other elements are developed and practiced by people. Separating people from these elements and activities is a difficult task (Merkel, 105).
People have confidence that they have a home. This confidence contributes to a stable society and culture. There is a sense of continuity of experiences and practices that people have adapted. People would want to continue with what they know rather than changing it. It is for this reason that Londoners want people adapt their culture. They are proud of their culture. They feel their culture is the best and has been made stable over time. There has been an emotional bond to London. Londoners are therefore attached to their city and have cultural memories. Seeing other people adopt their culture makes them proud of their identity. Even though they learn from others due to globalization, their cultural identity is not lost. Londoners adapt technology to improve on existing culture and make life better for every citizen and visitors. Preserving cultural heritage is every society’s goal. It is the duty of every society to connect people to their culture, and pass it to the next generations ( Casakin and Bernado, 64).
Through history, governments have tried to deal with the challenges connected to the slums with a huge variety of approaches. Many of the urban projects have failed as a result of weak governance, condition, dysfunctional regulations and lack of political will to prioritize and fully engage attempts to improve the situations for the slum dwellers (Casakin & Bernado)
Casakin, Herman & Bernado, Fatima. The Role of Place Identity in the Perception, Understanding, and Design of Built Environments. Bentham E-Books. 2011
Graves-Brown, Paul, Gamble Clive & Jones Sian. Cultural Identity and Archaelogy: The Construction of European Communities. New York: Roultledge. 2002
Merkel Udo. Power, Politics and International Events: Socio-cultural Analyses of festivals and Spectacles. New York: Routledge. 2014