Civilization

Ancient Egypt is a known country for its rich culture and history, but there is little understanding how daily activities were and the structure of the government at the time Egypt become civilized. There were people who believe that Egypt was ruthless and uncivilized, while other view the believe that it lead to the modern western civilization the Egyptian civilization formed in the earliest traces of human life in the region and along the River Nile in 300,00 B.C. at the edges of Nile Valley (Bell andQuie 113). At the time, people migrated frequently ate roots and berries and other edible animals they could find, but stood to their lifelines that were the Nile. The land along river Nile was rich for farming and possible to use during the dry season. This paper seek to discuss Egyptian civilization and compare with Mesopotamia civilization.

Ancient Mesopotamia was a fertile land located between Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. There are some invention during Mesopotamia that are still used in the modern world including farming and agriculture. People in the Mesopotamia region invented a plow. The revolution in technology transformed farming to enhance civilization. The use of plow made farmers in the region learned the irrigation and developed sanitation practices and learned to create more food. Civilization led to increasing in food production enabling people to trade with other civilizations. The second invention was the wheel, where Mesopotamia was the first civilization to create pottery for farming and chariots in during war times. The innovation is used in the modern transport, disks and watches. Thirdly, Mesopotamia was credited for being the first to invest mathematical number system. The system was based around number 60. The use of fingers and knuckles in the ancient civilization developed the first mathematical calculation. Architecture was another invention in ancient Mesopotamia, where people developed massive arches currently used in the modern era in making dwellings (Wildwood and Mathews 54). In the city several temples were erected, where the architectural building show evidence of domes, columns and arches which is still used in the modern architecture. Finally, the modern calendar was invented in ancient Mesopotamia, where changes throughout the day and seasons where developed into the concept of the year. Through observation of movement of the sun across the sky and stars, the ancient civilization developed the first calendar.

There were several inventions in the ancient Egypt including papyrus. In the early BCE, Egyptians innovated a procedure of making paper from the papyrus plant that is commonly found along the bank of Nile. The pith of the plant was cut out into long strips. These strips were positioned diagonally over each other and placed under a weight for few days. Egyptians were very secretive on the manner of manufacturing papyrus because it was the only commodity exported to other regions. Thus, keeping the manufacturing process as a secret assisted them to monopolize the production. After the invention of papyrus, it was crucial to developing a tool for writing. Papyrus sheets were stiff and thick. Thus, the tool to be used had to be equally sturdy. Reed pen was developed to serve the purpose. These pens had a split nibs and were used during the ancient times in the Egyptian. Egyptians made reed pen by cutting reed straws and shaping them in the several sizes. These pens made bold strokes on the papyrus and were used in calligraphy. Black ink is another important innovation in the ancient Egyptians, which is considered as the greatest and the most used. Egyptians mixed soot with beeswax and vegetable gum. They substituted soot with organic material to make different colors of ink. The ink was effective and potent as the Egyptian manuscripts written in the 3000 BC, which is readable till date (Freeman 124). Finally, pyramids were developed as the tombs for Egyptian Pharaohs. Kings were buried in a rectangle mud-brick tomb called Mastabas. Pyramids portrayed as the role of a pharaoh and Egyptian King in society. In additional pyramids had a spiritual significance, where every side of the pyramid represented God as their creator, transformer, and the preserver.

The Mesopotamians invented important thing including the wheel, writing system, helmet, and sailboat. In addition, they invented the dagger and calendars (McIntosh 7). On the other hand, Egyptians invented crucial things like writing system and paper. Arguably, Mesopotamians invented vital things especially for transportation while Egyptian invented creations for fun and recreations. Inventions in the Mesopotamia civilization is still applied in the modern

Conclusion

            People in the Mesopotamia region invented a plow and the revolution in technology transformed farming to enhance civilization.Mesopotamia was the first civilization to create pottery for farming and chariots in during war times.Egyptians innovated a procedure of making paper from the papyrus plant, and used in the region. Black ink is another important innovation in the ancient Egyptians, which is considered as the greatest and the most used. They substituted soot with organic material to make different colors of ink. The ink was effective and potent as the Egyptian manuscripts written in the 3000 BC.

 

Work Cited

Bell, Michael, and Sarah Quie. Ancient Egyptian Civilization. New York: Rosen Central, 2010.     Print.

Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean.   Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

McIntosh, Jane. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO,        2005. Print.

Wildwood, Gretchen, and Rupert Mathews. Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization. New York:         Rosen Central, 2010. Print.