POTBELLY

Case 2 requires analyzing the internal environment as well as the external environment, as covered in Case 1 and in Chapter 3. The internal environment analysis is covered in Chapter 4. You should draw heavily from the material in Chapter 4 in preparing your case. You may choose to analyze the internal environment using Michael Porter’s Value Chain approach or Jay Barney’s Resource Based View of the Firm (RBV). Porter’s approach sees the firm as a collection of activities; Barney sees the firm as a collection of resources. Both believe that the firm uses either activities or resources to build competitive advantage. Hence, the internal focus.

For the case study, you will write a report to the CEO Alan Johnson about your analysis of the industry, the macro-environment and the strengths and weaknesses of Potbelly. The problem statement is about the most significant problem facing the company; that problem could be based on external factors or internal factors – or both.

The analysis section is about the external and the internal environment. External factors are termed Opportunities and Threats, such as the Threat of Substitutes. (Yes, something can be both an opportunity and a threat – much as the growth of Internet retail is both an opportunity and a threat for a retailer.) Opportunities and Threats are factors that affect the entire industry, maybe even the entire marketplace. If an Opportunity or a Threat is company-specific, then it is not an external factor; it is an internal factor.

Internal factors are Strengths and Weaknesses. Be sure to read Chapter 4 to learn more about internal analysis, using either a resource based view, a value chain view or a competence perspective – or all three. Although you should include some reference to key financial aspects of the firm, no significant analysis of the financial aspects of the firm are needed until Case 3.

Based on your analysis, you recommend to the CEO what Potbelly should do strategically. And support your strategic recommendation. Why is it the best solution to the significant problem you have identified? You might also consider: Does the new strategy make sense? Does the focus seem correct? Is the CEO zeroing in on the right issues, in your judgment? Why or why not?

Your recommendation should have as foundation at least 1-5 internal factors and at least 1 -5 external factors. You can mix and match – what strengths should the company use to take advantage of an opportunity; or what opportunity should the company take to solve one of its weaknesses. What strengths could the company use to mitigate a threat; or what weaknesses must the company address so they do not fall victim to the treats facing the industry. Yes – this is a SWOT analysis. And the true payoff of SWOT analysis is learning enough to develop a strong strategic approach to gaining competitive advantage.

Please see the three files for instructions regarding Case Studies in this class. Remember: your report is based on where the company and the industry are now! 2018! The fourth file, ” New Potbelly CEO Wants to Make Sandwiches More Interesting ” is the basis for your case about the company. At the end of the article is the link to the online version that also includes many charts, graphs and further information.

You will be delving into the exciting world of the fast-casual restaurant industry (or the fast-casual sandwich industry – you choose). For your quantitative analysis draw on as many current sources as you can to get the material for some quantitative analysis of the industry and the current company. The company is publically traded; its annual report and 10-K will be most helpful.
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https://www.wsj.com/articles/new-potbelly-ceo-wants-to-make-sandwiches-more-interesting-1531911600 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
USE ONLY 2018 REFERENCES AND REFERENCES ATTACHED

Rhetorical Analysis of a News Event 

Rhetorical Analysis of a News Event                               

This is a short, 800-1250 word analysis of a current news event of your choice. Rhetorical analysis is a form of close reading that requires textual support for your claims, so your paper will include lots of short quotes from the news stories to support your analysis, as well as some external source support for your claims about the agendas of the news outlets.

Context: we know that both implicit bias and deliberately selective presentation of images and information influence public perceptions, and ultimately shape policies and institutions. Implicit bias shows up due to the unchallenged assumptions of the journalist, and may influence how they do/not report on issues. This problem is now greatly exacerbated by the suppression of information by the current administration, as well as their presentation of “alternative facts” as news.

Implicit bias influences every aspect of daily life. Research has shown that medical providers are less likely to prescribe painkillers to black patients, including children.  Women are forced to wait longer than men for emergency care. Research conducted by the National Bureau of Economic Research shows that job applications with comparable credentials that varied only by stereotypically white or black names resulted in fewer callbacks for the stereotypically black names. The significance of the difference was such that  “…a white name yields as many more callbacks as an additional eight years of experience.” Negative callback rates also resulted from names that were stereotypically female, as well as those from applicants that appeared to be from residents of low-income areas.

Content: to conduct your analysis I am asking you to focus on a current news event (that is being actively reported right now, by multiple news outlets) and examine the ways it was/not reported. Look at reports from a minimum of three different media platforms, including ones that represent different political agendas, and include analysis of both texts and images from the stories. Things to discuss:

-How prominent is the story coverage? Was it a top story/above the fold in one and hidden deep in others?  Was it covered by all of the outlets?

-Look at the language of the headlines—is it sensationalist in some and matter-of-fact in others? Is there anything potentially misleading?

-Examine the images. How were the events and/or people involved portrayed? You must include images from each story in your paper, and provide some detailed analysis about each image.

-What information is not included? Is important context included in some but missing in others? Is the information supported with credible stats/links?

-Look at language and tone. This might mean overtly biased language or it may be subtle shifts in tone. Provide examples.

Details: You should start your paper with a paragraph that provides a brief overview of the news event, and your title should reference that event.  Discuss the credibility and perceived political slant of each news source, providing some external support for your claims. Do some homework about the news outlets, including the Pew Research article (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. we will read for class, stats from Alexa.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., or general research about the outlets. Cite your sources in text, and include a Works Cited page. State your citation style in the header of the paper.

Audience: The presumed audience for this paper is an academic, expert audience. This means that your tone should be relatively formal.

 

Lets goooooo!! We can do this

Applying for a Job Essay

A classroom teacher wields a great deal of power over the students because they have the power to control the destiny of the child five days a week. Creating a positive relationship with the students is one way of fostering a positive learning experience for the students.The positive relationship creates a pathway that helps a teacher understand the students’ needs and the best way to help the particular student. In my teaching experience I have encountered different kind of students from different backgrounds who were undergoing difficult situations. My most memorable case however was one that I was able to completely change the attitudes of a group of students.

In my first years as a paraprofessional as I was getting to know the students, one group of students stood out. They were always late to class with invalid excuses, their homework was always unfinished and there are times when they would even skip school. On further investigation, I learnt that the students came from a background where they did not appreciate education and the only reason they were in school is because it was compulsory for them.  Most of other teachers had somehow given up on the students and left them to ‘life’. I believe that students should be at school because they want to and they should enjoy being there.

I therefore decided to take some time out and talk to the students, four boys and one girl. At first, they did not take it seriously but I promised to meet them one by one personally at least once per day. What I hoped to achieve is to change their attitudes and way of looking at things and I must say it worked. Within a month’s time, I did not even have to send for them, they brought themselves to me. When they had a problem they would come to me and I was always there to help them. They finally graduated and passed much to everyone’s surprise. I learnt that all they needed was someone to listen to them and show just a little care.

Question 2

I have been working as a paraprofessional for almost ten years now and I have accumulated large amounts of knowledge. Knowledge is power and with my 10-year experience as a paraprofessional has been my well of knowledge I have learnt to deal with different kind of children who have different needs and creating effective positive relationships between my students and I and thus fostering a healthy classroom environment. An informed teacher leads their students towards greater heights and having important information on the education sector. Among the skills acquired I believe the most important ones in teaching are effective communication and teamwork because these are needed around the workplace from the classroom to official matters.

As a teacher, effective communication is a key ingredient at the workplace. There is always need to communicate with the students, parents and colleagues. Skillful communicators are able to accept information, comprehend it and synthesize it. They are also able to express themselves in the best way possible. As a teacher it is important to be skilled to listen to the students, presentation of material in class, adapt methods and ways that best suit the students and be able to transform a boring lesson to an interesting one. All these are skills that I have acquired over the years and I would like to utilize them. Effective communication will pave way for better teamwork skills because colleagues understand one another.

Research shows that team work is an important aspect of the teaching profession. In my years of being a paraprofessional I have learnt the importance of teamwork and working together in teams. School heads, parents and teachers have to work together to maximize the output of the child. Support and constant communication among teachers is important in light of teamwork promotion. The greatest resource that a teacher has is another teacher. Working together with other paraprofessionals gives an assurance of effective teaching. Effective teaching will mean that the students will produce positive results. Working in teams also means less stress levels, remaining fresh all day and ready to handle students at all times.

 

MUSIC STYLE

Throughout every history of civilization, every tribe and culture had its form of music. The tradition of music has gone through one generation to another. However, in those ancient years, it was difficult to know and understand what music sounded.   The founders of music instilled music in their dramas.  They did not sing in chorus but they chanted singsong style. They had a simple harp-like instrument. It is for this reason that I concur that “It is difficult to devote much attention to music that no one is sure how it sounds.” One fact is that the ancient style of music will find it difficult to find a modern audience. A non-metrical rhythm; moron graphic texture accompanied with restrained mood cannot make-up music. It merely becomes a chant not worth attention. If one understands music, he would want to listen to its every element and wallow in it. It is different from understanding the attributes of a song.

For one to understand Western music, it is helpful to divide it into stylistic periods. It is important because it helps a listener understand the context of the music thus able to connect what he is listening to and what he knows and understand. Unfortunately, there is no any other pedagogical approach because, over the historical period, almost every civilization has used the music element in the same way. However, this type of approach exposes the regular and irregularity of the periodic musical patterns. The advantages of this stylistic approach are that a listener can understand the difference, characteristics, and patterns of the musical melodies of every stylistic period, the type of harmony, texture regarding how the styles were performed. It clues the listener on the style of music, what to listen to and expect. For example, one cannot expect a solo singer from a music composed before 1600.

 Reference

Hoffer, Charles. Music Listening Today, 6th ed. MA: Schirmer Cengage Learning, 2016

 

BENCHMARK-EFFECTIVE APPROACHES IN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

Introduction

The most essential nursing objectives entails continuous improvement of health care quality. The correct handling of patients is pegged on having enough number of nurses within the hospital. Shortages of nurses within the healthcare sector in America has been increasing and it has been coupled with high labor turn over (Page, & Institute of Medicine, 2014). This has been occasioned by the fact that few people are interested in pursuing nursing. Nursing leadership and management are responsible for organizing an effective health workforce so as to attain desired aims.  Shortages in nursing has also been brought about by high number of aging population in the nursing profession with no sufficient replacement (Glass, McKnight,& Valdimarsdottir, 2013, p, 149).

To curb this issue of nursing turn over, the management and leadership within the healthcare sector need to come up with ways of motivating the nurses so as reduce their high turnover rates. This paper will look at leadership and Management in Nursing in relation to nursing shortage and nurse turn-over. The paper will also focus on my individual and professional philosophy of nursing & how I would expect nursing leaders to approach this issues.

Analysis of Leadership and Manager Approach to the Issue

Factors which may drive nurse turnover include: been overworked, lack of opportunities, lack of recognition, poor relationship with management and colleagues and poor communication among others(Glass, McKnight,& Valdimarsdottir, 2013, p, 151). Management styles of the health organization play a crucial role when it comes to promoting workplace empowerment, commitment to the company and job satisfaction among the nurses. It entails personal traits and behavioral characteristics of individuals in position to influence group interactions and attainment of organizational objectives.

There are several principles which can be used by nursing leaders to deal with nursing turnover. For instance, nursing leaders can try to get to the root cause of the issue leading to high turnover. As a result, it would be easier for the management to know how to deal with it. If it is the issue related to poor communication, low payment or lack of career opportunities, the management can look for ways to ensure that it solves this issues. Moreover, the management of the healthcare can use the Maslow hierarchy of needs to ensure that it well placed to meet the needs of the nurses (Gustafson, 2011, p, 109). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs which are divided into three broad categories (basic, psychological and self-fulfillment needs).

The image besides provides a summary of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. If nursing management is able to meet this needs, it would be able to minimize employee turnover. When nurses see that the firm that they are working is meeting their needs, they will be motivated to be committed to it and help it to attain its aims.

Leadership styles also tends to play a vital role when it comes to employee turnover. Autocratic leadership style, also called coercive or dictatorship tends to make nurses to leave the institution.Relationship-oriented leader ship style would play a crucial role in minimizing employee turnover. The reason for this is that the main concern of relationship-oriented leaders is directed towards creating and coming up with interpersonal relationship. Relationship-oriented leaders are focused on a two-way type of communication with their subordinates unlike the Autocratic leader who prefers one way communication style (Alexander, Bloom,&Nuchols, p, 509, 2014).

Skills needed to ensure that staff turnover is minimized include creating a supportive work environment, offering recognition for a job well done and been good at motivating the nurses. These skills play a vital role in ensuring that the nurses remain committed to the firm. Having skills in creating a supportive work environment goes a long way in ensuring that employees do not feel alone but it creates a family like environment which strengthens the bonds among the staffs hence enabling them to be committed to the organization. Having skills in showing appreciation /recognizing good performance by the staffs sends a message to the nurses that the leadership values their hard work(Gustafson, 2011, p, 112). Having skills in motivating employees on the part of management would inspire staffs to work harder towards enabling the company to achieve its objectives.

As earlier noted, nurses turnover is bought about by lack of career opportunity. To handle this, the management can offer training opportunities for the nurses. This would ensure that the nurses gain additional skills and which would enable them to climb up the corporate ladder.  Besides offering training opportunities, the management can instead of hiring from external market to fill vacant position in the organization, it can instead hire internally hence ensuring that there is low employee turnover(Finkelmann, 2016).

My Personal Approach

Employees leave organizations due to various reasons. Personally, I would ensure that I would ensure that I create a supportive and family like environment. Such a move would ensure that the nurses receive all the support that they need. Moreover it would ensure that the bond among the employees is enhanced(Page, & Institute of Medicine, 2014). Besides this, I would use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to ensure that the nurses remain committed to the firm.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs offers a perfect way in which I would be able to meet the various needs to the nurses. By addressing/meeting each of these needs, I would able to ensure that the staffs/nurses remain committed to the organization hence lowering their turnover rates(Finkelmann, 2016). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs offers an overview of what nurses are looking for and they are likely to remain committed to firms which are meeting their needs. As a result, it would be best measure/strategy to use to ensure that employee turnover is reduced.

The last approach that I would use is to hire the right employees. Retaining staffs begins with employing the right staffs. Firms are likely employstaffsthat have the necessary skills which matchesthe vacant position in the company. However, the question that arises entails how well does the new recruits fit within the business’s culture? I would ensure that I employ people who portrays behavioral has skills and culture that fits with the job/company.If nurses does not fit in with the work environment, they are likely to beunhappy (Finkelmann, 2016). As a result, they will not fit in, they will not get along with their colleagues, and they are likely to feel lonely. A skilled and qualified staffwho does not match the behaviors and culture of one’s organization,cannot stay for long and as a result,they are likely to leave and take their skills somewhere else where it fits in well.

Funding source which addresses the issue

For the issue about nursing shortage and nurse turn-over to be solved, resources and finances are required to ensure that the issue is handled effectively. As a result possible source of funding may come from HRSA. Besides this, it may also come from within the organization itself.

Conclusion

Nursing shortage and nurse turn-over is an issue affecting many firms. As a result, it is making many healthcare institutions not to be able to offer quality services. Issues such as lack of career opportunities, poor communication, lack of support and lack of recognition of their efforts. Leadership style and skills are vital in ensuring that the nursing shortage and turnover is reduced. I would use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to tackle the issue related to employee turnover.

References

Alexander, J. A., Bloom, J. R., & Nuchols, B. A. (2014). Nursing turnover and hospital     efficiency: An organizational-level analysis. Industrial Relations, 33, 505-520

  1. Gustafson, (2011) “staff turnover: Retention”. International journal of contemporary Hospitality manage management, 14 (3) pp106-113,

Finkelmann, A. W. (2016). Leadership and management in nursing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall   [u.a..

Glass, D.C., McKnight, J.D., & Valdimarsdottir, H. (2013). Depression, burnout, and       perceptions of control in hospital nurses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical    Psychology, 61, 147-155

Page, A., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2014). keeping patients safe: Transforming the work      environment of nurses. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press

 

 

 

Effective Policies and Rules

Introduction

The essay will tackle three contemporary problems encountered in day-to-day life. First is the issue about taxation policy. The question is whether the taxes on people making over $ 250,000 changed or not. The country has a progressive tax policy, which stipulates that citizens should pay as they earn. The policy affects negatively to the country economy because it is bias it strains the low class citizens. A good tax system should have equality; to achieve this, the government should apply a regressive tax system that allows the high-income section of the citizen to pay a bigger rate than the poorer. However, regressive law should run parallel with the progressive one. It will eventually reduce the gap between the rich and the poor(Steuerle, 2008).

The second problem is the whether the transportation security (TSA) be altered or not. Still a bigger fraction of citizens in the country relies on public means for transport. Travellers are ought to be protected and that is the reason why the Transport Security Administration TSA has a duty to introduce more concreate measures to safeguard the welfare of the travellers. The TSA is entitled by the government to ensure safety in the transportation sector. A need for altering the regulation is necessary in order to provide solutions in the emerging dangers in the transportation sector(Elias Kyriakides, 2014).

Using of cell phones while driving has become a big concern nowadays. The traffic policies have tried to curb this vice by installing decisive measures against it.        The traffic department has banned this depravity but it has not provided tools to monitor those who violate the rule. Using cell phones while driving is similar to drinking and driving both can cause destructions to drivers resulting to accidents. Occurrence of accidents is harmful to both the pedestrians and drivers(Kiesbye, 2012).

Addressing the first problem of tax, failing to change the tax rate deductions from people who are earning more $ 250,000 will lower the gross domestic product of the country. The progressive policy does not adequately charge the high-income earners. For instance, if the tax rate is 15% to all native citizens an individual earning higher pays lesser tax than an individual who is a low-income earner(Pollack, 2010). A low gross domestic product implies means a poor service delivery to the citizens. Several economic problems are bound to occur; for instance, the country bargaining power will drop, there will be a negative balance of payment by failing to match the imports and the exports. A solution for this problem is to run parallel tax policy, which is contrary to regressive tax policy that is a regressive tax policy. Regressive tax system captures the higher income earners as it tax them more compared to the poor people. The results will improve the country national income hence boosting the living standards of the poor citizens by funding the social amenities for their interest.

The second problem lays on both economic and political grounds. Travelers’ security is a key issue and whenever compromised, the government is answerable. Opposition parties are there to keep an eye on the way the government is responding to problems of insecurity if any. The US government has a duty delegated to Transport security Administration TSA to implement policies and strategies that will guarantee travelers’ safety in the transport industry. Considering the raising cases of terrorism in the globe, TSA should be strict in both bus terminals and the countries airports. If the transport sector safe, business people are encouraged to expand investments by importing and exporting products with confidence. Expansion of investments triggers bigger profits hence boosting the national income of the United States(Elias Kyriakides, 2014).

The third problem covers an issue of ethics and social too. The vice of using cell phones while driving is discouraged in many countries. Reports from Traffic Safety culture Index suggest that, drivers while using cell phones across various states cause 20% of road accidents. The reasons for imposing this bans against this vice is, not only life’s of pedestrians is at risk but also the life of the drivers as well. Audience of this vice are mostly the businesspersons who are rushing to meet appointments so they end up multitasking oblivious of the hazard they are posing to pedestrians. In-spite of the bans, there are still other drivers who are breaking the rules(Kiesbye, 2012). The traffic police department should device better strategies that will closely monitor those who violate the rule. Arguing against the ban, some drivers suggest that the rule should allow the use of earphone receiver that is pined on the ears when one is driving. Using the Bluetooth earphones will not eradicate the destruction, having a conversation in whichever manner will definitely cause destructions to driver and is likely to cause an accident. Simply the vice is uncouth and unethical(Elias Kyriakides, 2014).

In conclusion, US should come up with efficient, faire, critical and realistic policies when formulating laws that will pose significant impacts on the life of citizens. The US government should revise tax policies to accommodate all the citizens with equity. On the aspects of traveler’s safety in the transport industry, US government have to amend the rules that will guarantee maximum security to all the travelers, finally usage of cell phones while driving is unethical and no compromise about it. Fully implementation of the suggested policies will tremendously boos the economy of United States of America.

 

References

Elias Kyriakides, M. P. (2014). Intelligent Monitoring, Control, and Security of Critical Infrastructure Systems. Berlin: Springer.

Kiesbye, S. (2012). Distracted Driving. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Pollack, S. D. (2010). Failure of U. S. Tax Policy: Revenue and Politics. University Park, : Penn State Press.

Steuerle, C. E. (2008). Contemporary U.S. Tax Policy. Washington, D.C : The Urban Insitute.

Information Privacy

Introduction

Information privacy has a broader coverage in its definitive meaning. It ranges from privacy of personal communication to personal data to details. Therefore, information privacy can be defined as the need to keep particular data or information more confidential and in control against any impending threat from opponents. Mostly, this information are deemed of high importance by individuals and the business fraternity too. In the context of businesses, information privacy is highly valued and it will be maintained often to protect it against malice rivals(Daniel J. Solove).

A problem emerges when handling information within the business sector. Business is a field full of competition and whenever an information leaks out, it becomes very dangerous to the firm whose information has poured out. Competitors will take advantage of this and play capitalistic games. For instance, if a firm gets information on production procedures of its fellow strong competitor, it will try to copy the formula and produce similar products(Daniel J. Solove). The victim company will face unfair competition from the company that stole its information. How this information end up leaking is of great concern. Mainly a company will solicit important information from its outstanding competitor with the aid of the latter employees. Some employees are disloyal and will sometimes be willing to sell essential information of their company to a competitors.

A question of confidentially now arises, confidentiality can be defined as the lawful obligation bestowed on an individual who happens to be in position of obtaining or accessing someone’s information to keep them undisclosed. Often when one has an authorized relationship with an individual, he or she has a duty to protect the information they will happen to find out in due course of business(Daniel J. Solove).

In relation to deontological approach, decision of capitalizing on opportunities in an unscrupulous manner is a considered immoral irrespective of how worthiness attached with it. The deontological ethics doesn’t support this vice. Taking advantage of stolen information to cut deals with it amounts to corruptions in the business competition which ought to be fare.  Deontological approach incline to judge the morality behind a particular action on whether it has adhere to the sets of outlined obligations or rules(Hooker). For instance, an individual in contract with a particular firm and happens to discover essential information about the firm has a duty of confidentiality and he is bound not to disclose unless called upon by the court of law.

In resolving this problem basing on deontological rule of ethics, to achieve information privacy individuals with other information should deploy it with utmost good faith. Immanuel Kant argues that, for a particular action to be termed as intrinsically good it should be both good in itself and good without any aspect of qualification(Hooker). Even if an individual uses someone’s’ information in obtaining a more valuable item, deontological focuses on the first motive. Acquiring ones information is for your own advantage if an ill-motive action and anything good resulting from it doesn’t qualify to be intrinsically good(Hooker).

On the contrary, consequentialism rules doesn’t support the essence of information privacy.  Consequentialism theory suggest that t action done is of more importance than the following consequences. The theory supports the act of individuals infringing the people’s right to information privacy. A firm can capitalize on the information it has drawn from its competitors, deploys it for its advantage causing them victimized competitors to fall out of business(Daniel J. Solove). Consequentialism theory supports the actions of stealing information as of more importance while ignoring what transpired to the other firm.

Furthermore, the predicament around information privacy can be resolved basing on the utilitarian theory of approach. Utilitarian theory is somehow similar with the deontological theory only that, this one focuses on the need to undertake an action if it will result to more benefit than harm if left unused. It simply says if benefit is greater than harm, it’s wise to partake than abandoning the action(Hooker). For instance, if a company response to a particular information will prevent it from closing down or running into bankruptcy and rather make good profit, it is wise undertaking it. A measure of economic utility is applicable by selecting the best alternative in order to minimize the opportunity cost.

According to the above arguments, a better way of resolving this concern is by employing the use of data surveillance policies. Companies should monitor and protect personal information and secure their communication using modern communication encryption tools. The techniques can be either physical surveillance or electronic one. Additionally, companies should make sure all their production formulas and technical knowhow are well patent. Patent will earn the company to legally protect its information and sue whoever attempts into infringe with its right of information privacy.

In conclusion, information privacy is of great importance in both personal, government and corporation level. People and companies are advised to maintain the highest protection of their data against Competitors and enemies. This will keep this safe in their undertakings.

Work Cited

Daniel J. Solove, Marc Rotenberg, Paul M. Schwartz. Privacy, Information, and Technology. New York: Aspen Publishers Online, 2006.

Hooker, Brad. Developing Deontology: New Essays in Ethical Theory. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

The Theme of Fatherhood in the Play Fences By August Wilson.

Introduction

The play ‘Fences’ by August Wilson brings a story which covers the theme of fatherhood that reveals exactly what’s happening in the role of a father in the contemporary life. The play introduce family of Troy, his wife Rose and son Cory. Fence is cantered mainly on Troy Maxson, Troy is an antagonistic, aggressive person who keeps on fighting with an imaginative thoughts of death. Troy is seen as an alcoholic fellow as he engages into a drinking spree at his house with his friend Bono. Readers of the play hates Troy’s role and the way he handles fatherhood duties. During the drinking and talking at his house Lyon appears because he knows it’s Troy’s payday. Rose isn’t pleased with these as she feels Troy is squandering the meagre earnings amid their agreed budget.

Troy is depicted as a discouraging father, a father has to be supportive at all cost to his family on things that are foreseen as beneficial to them. When Troy and his Son Cory were fixing up their fence, Cory opened up to his Dad that he is willing to resign his job at the Local grocery store and attend a football trial ahead of the forthcoming football league season, a football scout from North Carolina was coming to Pittsburgh so that he can watch Cory play. Troy sternly reject these idea and order Cory to secure his job back(Wilson, 1986). Cory was very upset about these as he had missed an opportunity to secure a football scholarship. Readers kept on waiting for Troy to rediscover himself in the end and gave Cory a chance on what pleases him. The relationship between Troy and Son starts to deteriorate from the onset of the play.

Moreover, Troy is being painted as an unfaithful husband. First, Bono starts suspecting that Troy is cheating on his wife. These is proved later when Troy revealed to Bono that He is having an affair with Alberta while they were working on the fence.“I see where you be eyeing her.” (1.1.20)  Bono told him when Troy said she bought Alberta more than one drinks. Rose on the other hand tries so much to capture love in her family, these is showcased in the symbolism of her insisting to Troy on fixing the fence. Bono tries to enlighten Troy and Cory that Rose interest on fence repair is because she wants to maintain the love of her family very close, through the entire play, Troy shows no signs of making up with Rose. He had no reason of treating Rose so badly. Troy is simply a reckless father, he had vowed to improve the living standards of his family to a better than what he went through at his childhood.

Troy had an abusive childhood influences him as it turns him into an abusive father and goes on mistreating his son Cory. There was an incident where Troy reveals his affair with Alberta to her wife., Rose accused him of being selfish, a husband who prefer taking and not giving, an argument emerged and Troy grabs her wife by the arms, Cory tries to intervene and a fight erupt, in another scene, Cory tried to pass pas his Dad in the house but he Troy blocked him and to learn how to say “ excuse me” like a polite person Troy goes to an extend of shoving Cory back but Cory retarded and say “ I live here too!” Cory tells his father that he don’t fear him anymore, “you don’t count around here no more.” Corry said angrily(Wilson, 1986). However, Troy is viewed as an irresponsible father, when Alberta had a baby, she passed away during labour, Rose decided to look after the baby girl Raynell but she stopped to consider Troy has his husband because of his infidelity.

In conclusion, Troy failed in his fatherhood role, he claimed to be living under the shadows of his past but he had a chance to turn it around in his family. He goes on losing his son forever after engaging into a fight with the baseball bat, Troy also failed in his husband role by making Rose denounce him after cheating on her with Albert. Generally, Troy is portrayed as sadist and incompetent father that no family would wish to have as a father figure.

Reference

Wilson, A. (1986). Fences. Westminster: Penguin Group.

In the book Devices and desires

In the book Devices and desires, Andrea Tone(1873) Talks about the history of birth control mechanisms in America. Tone acknowledges that time immemorial people used to trade and use contraceptives as a mode of birth control. However in 1873 Anthony Comstock, a powerful agent of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice enforced a law that banned the circulation and distribution of contraceptive especially through mail. The law stated that use or trading in contraceptives was immoral, unethical and illegal. Unfortunately this did not relatively change anything as the public still produced, bought and used the contraceptives.The prohibition led to the rise of the urge in gradual change of the social conformity with regards to the same. The incorporated laws that illegalized black market birth control trade were seen to oversee the difficulties women went through at childbirth and personal initiated abortions. Therefore in this essay we look at the economic and social traits of the black market birth control trade. Firstly as a way of understanding the transformation of birth control. Secondly as trade and lastly it stands with regards to the law.

Firstly, between the years 1870 and 1910 was a dark period with regards to birth control. This was the period when the national contraceptives industry was proclaimed to be illegal. Laws were enforced to guide and stipulate how immoral and unclean the use of contraceptives were.  Logically it was expected to cut off the number of people using contraceptives, however, this did not happen as there were new improvised ways to run the trade, secondly was lack of enough funding to uphold and enforce the laws and thirdly the conflict of interest and command between the national and state governments. Under the Comstock age and laws small scale entrepreneurs were the most vulnerable and thus had to find new ways of holding their ground. There were still contraceptive traders and doctors who hid their identities and made it difficult for the officers in charge to arrest them.To some extent, the contraceptives were concealed and sold as hygiene products. A good example the virginal barrier method that inhibits pregnancy by preventing the sperm from fertilizing the ovary in a woman was sold under the disguise of protecting women from germs. However, the real deal was a virginal sponge. Andrea Tone in ‘the fraud of the Lysol douche being a product of illegality’ says that at this point when contraceptives could not be marketed openly the producers would instead turn to using disguised or coded language in manufacturing, advertising and selling the contraceptives.The fashionable crime ‘Michigan medical news, 3 (1880)

The second point of concern that boosted this trade even after it was banned was the Americans failure to abstain or say no. Conservatively they had adopted the ‘rhythm method or saying no ‘as a mode of morally child control method. This is where a couple had to time themselves within their safe days to have sex. Unfortunately it failed. The most significant one was abstinence. After World War I, it became evident that this system had failed as many of the United States servicemen came back home with sexually transmitted diseases. A group of reproductive rights activists, physicians and policy makers like Sanger Margaret. Sanger ran birth control movements, advocated and interpreted contraceptive information.’ Prevention of conception’ woman rebel. Margaret Sanger (1914). She said that the laws only made people live a lie, the generation was ready and ripe toadopt and accept the use of contraceptives. They said, birth control was an open secret to the few able ones. All this was evident from the graphs that came from arrests and trial trends. As a result there rose better ways to that sustained and thrived the black market in birth control. The stakeholders improvised better methods either through legal leniency by manipulate the existing laws and find their way out whenever they were caught. New and dynamic paths grew between themanufacturers, entrepreneursand customers in the black market control. Americans had to find a way out in controlling their fertility and lives even after the illegalization.  Therefore they still purchased and produced contraceptives.

Nevertheless the black market birth control entrepreneurs had close friends in the agents tasked to monitor and arrest them. Stating from officers, members of the jury and prosecutors. This had a prejudiced outcome in the conviction of people arrested for flawing the law yet known to the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice. However in some cases every case was perceived differently due to the federal system of governance. In some places it was regarded as a right to privacy while at another place it was seen as a way of birth control and not against the law. Thus finding no clear cut between personal and entrepreneurial laws or the transitivity between. The binding forces of conjugal life (Princeton, Mass., 1877)

In conclusion, we realize that contraceptive entrepreneurship started long time ago, despite the ban there was no real change in the use of the same. This as a result of many variables starting from personal perception, the public’s general view and rationality that came with it. Moreover we also learn that it was so hard to kill the trade or justify the criminality by virtue of stakeholders involved in. Their relationships, creativity, social and political dilemmas that came with it too. At the end the United States of America had to accept use of contraceptives for the benefit of its own people.

Education in the United Arab Emirates

Education in the United Arab Emirates has undergone a tremendous diversification, especially with regards to the provision of quality, comprehensive and self-learning education to both male and female students. Moreover, there are government initiated developmental goals to enhance and diversify education by the year 2020. The government launched free education from kindergarten to university in public schools. Politically the United Arab Emirates has made its people education to be the real significant investment both locally and across the globe regarding the government has continually revised, re-evaluated its role in education and made efforts to improve the educational environments to students. As a result, the high school systems in the United Arab Emirates has grown from the neighboring Middle Eastern countries such as Egypt, Syria, Jordon, and Lebanon.

According to AkkariAbdeljalil (2004), “Education in the Middle East and North Africa” the United Arab Emirates does share Islam and Arabic as the common religion and language respectively with its neighboring countries like Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. However they differ regarding traditions, spoken dialects, shared the past, social and national experience. During the 19th century most of these countries were still being colonized, they were subject to the Colonial style of education. However in the 20th century most of them got independence, as a consequence there was the rise of significant social changes like engendered education and the growth of skilled indigenous people. However, some countries were too conservative and reluctant to incorporate the superimposed systems of education. They feared to erode their authenticity. Unlike the United Arab Emirates, education was seen as the primary cornerstone to the economic, social growth and sustainability. Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan were still conservative after independence. However, United Arab Emirates saw education as an agent of development, change, and socio-economic change, internal, regional and global development. Amara, M. H., &Marʼi, A. A.-R. (2002). Language education policy. He talks about the aspects of the Arabic divide regarding the language, the Arabic education systems, and changes. The socio-economic changing conditions within the population of the United Arab Emirates and its neighbors. He also talks about both the changes within the governments through their educational ministries concerning the creation of educational policies, adjusting the Arabic education systems. The authenticity of the same education systems impacts both on the citizens within and outside and the achievements. Incorporating English and French as second languages that in their curricula.

The United Arab Emirates broke from the conservative conformity that was girl child biased and advocated for an engendered way towards education. The female and male citizens within are given equal opportunities to education. Empowerment of women through access to education has put United Arab Emirate on the global platform regarding available and competitive human capital. Apart from this, it has led to the expansion of the education program and building more schools. For example the transformation of the K to 12 programs. The establishment of Zayed University (ZU) in 1998 as a women’s institution. However, it was later made to incorporate men too. The university has five colleges— The College of Arts and Sciences, Business, and Sciences Education, media sciences and Information Technology. The mode of instruction primary schools was English. English as a language in the United Arab Emirates used as for wider communication. Consequently, it becomes a fundamental requirement for any student who wanted to enhance his global prosperity. All this is was meant to prepare each student to be globally competitive within the United Arab Emirates and the world market. The inclusion of all genders in education saw the population in school enrollment increase. Consequently, the literacy and professional levels increased. Leaders in power steered more investments into the education sector. For example as a president, his Highness ShiekhZayed Bin Sultan Al Nayan who was also the founder of United Arab Emirates perceived education of the succeeding generation as the only primary mode of investment, creating and sustaining wealth. Thus leading to over 60 percentage of students population increase in schools between the years 2006-2007.    It Resulted in a more universal, comprehensive and compulsory primary and secondary education at least up to grade nine. Nevertheless looking place in a quad-tier process by the age of 14 years as seen below.

In 2005, UAE President H.H. Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan formed the Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC)  An independently formed the body in Abu Dhabi to develop education in UAE. The body was tasked to work hand in hand with the ministry of education in coming up with viable education plans that aligned to the United Arabs educational policy. Moreover, it became an entrepreneurial approach that was to involve the education sector in diversifying facilities, decentralizing powers, updating the systems with regards to current information and technology. Booth, Marilyn. Arab Adolescents Facing the Future: Enduring Ideals and Pressures to Change.(2002) Currently, the body has announced an initiative that will make the public education better. The project under the name ‘public-private partnership for public school management’. The project gives mandate and power to successful local and international private education providers to run some listed public schools in the Abu Dhabi working in hand with the Abu Dhabi Educational Council.

According to  ‘The Persian Gulf and Pacific Asia: From Indifference to Interdependence’ Davidson, C. M. (2010).  The United Arab Emirates is ranked second best in the Arabic-world Economic hub of the Middle East countries. Primarily its economy relies on oil. Looking at the earlier set goals towards 2021 which will be a golden jubilee year to UAE, the country is in a competitive tide of global transformation. It daily works towards successfully competing in the global arena. Strategic partnerships between the government, industries, and academic institutions has led to an educationally oriented innovation driven culture and environment. Many growing educational institutions have forged partnerships with leading local and international firms that have led to enhancement of the competitive edge. The referent power brought by being a big economic win has led top global education investment within and outside UAE. There is growth in the number of international universities that have been set up within or have their campuses within the United Arab Emirate. They include the Dubai Village and Academic City. With relation to teachers, there has been the introduction of better and advanced models in education with relation to best practices. Having a healthy economy has led to the chatter in education providing heads of schools with often workshops and programs that prepare them for proactive instructional leadership. The ministry is looking forward to training more than ten thousand public school teachers within a period not exceeding five years. There is also the creation of an e-learning platform aimed at creating a new and conducive environment in public school. This project initiated in 2012.

UAE Ministry of Education, September 2008; concerning facilities the Center for Excellence for Applied Research and Training founded in 1997 as a commercial arm for higher colleges and technologies. It provides training, applied technology, and education. Through the Middle East, this has been the largest hub in provision of developing projects among the North African and Middle East countries Moreover, other vocational training intuitions include;

The Emirates Institute for Banking and Financial Studies;

It is a banking institution that was established in 1983 tasked to deliver knowledge in the banking field. Primarily it was tasked to provide standardized, professional training efficient human capital in the banking and finance sector. Prestigious overseas educational systems accredit the diplomas provided.

The ADNOC Technical Institute (ATI)

Before changing to Abu Dhabi Technical Institute, it was known as the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company. Its primary task was to serve as a development center for career opportunities. It established in 1978. Due to the diversification of duties it started offering training programs that aimed at reaching the Abu Dhabi National Oil company and some of its associated companies. The virtues aim was to provide the associate companies with skilled labor and empower the unemployed United Arab Emirates youths.

PETROLEUM INSTITUTE

It started in 2001; the great vision was to set roots as a world-class institution that steered education and research with regards to oil, gas and energy industries. Apart from these, they also offer bachelor degrees in the vast areas that relate to engineering. They also provide scholarship opportunities to people working already in the oil and gas industries.

EMIRATES AVIATION COLLAGE;

The college was established in 1991, under civil aviation department to provide training related to aviation. Profoundly it was aimed at training self-sponsored and corporate organization.

Currently, UAE is advocating for a current and advanced mode of learning techniques. There are real investments in education as opposed to other neighboring countries. The traditional methods included students being in classes all the time with their teachers; their primary task was to dispense knowledge instead of being facilitators of the same. Using boards and chalk with face to face communication. Putting more emphasis on grooming students to pass the exams and attain a targeted goal other than making them understand the concept. However, this has been incorporated by modern methods that include classes attended with high technology. e.g. teleconferencing and online studies. Comprehensive syllabuses usually updated, current and evaluated oftenly. Interactive mode of learning and relating the studies to real life situation. At Zayed University education was diversified by vitue of teaching, self, and interactive learning, research and networking to reach leadership in this dynamic and competitive environment. Moore, A.H., Moore, J.F., Bodwen, P., Coasdale, H.R. (October 2003). Information Technology Review. Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Zayed University.

A well-designed learning material designed by modern technology adds absolute value to the learning environment. Cognitive apprenticeship created, leading to developing of critical personal thoughts in any circumstance that may enhance critical thinking, currently lifestyle was changing daily making entertainment a key area of concern in the media-rich environments both domestically or internationally. There was made rich-text formulae to be more enriching, smooth, adjustable when subjected to the dynamic environment, more that saves on time and self-motivating. Profoundly it helped to expand an original scope of exploration, break the monotony of being in class, making everything to be more practical with regards to real life situations. Some of the modes include; use of flow charts and drawings to show how certain things work. Giving student’s dictionaries written both English and Arabic, this helped the student to refer either words from either side of the dictionary, thus letting him learn at the best speed that suits him. Having dry labs where reports produced and practical’s done. Simulations that explained how a machine or something works and job mentorships to elaborate on better career paths. Akababa-Altun, S. Elementary school principals’ attitude towards technology and their computer experience.  (2001, September. Paper presented at the World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI) Triennial World Conference, Madrid, Spain.

In conclusion, the diversification of educational systems in UAE to be better than that of its neighbors has been a result of several key factors. To start with is incorporating best educational systems and practices. Starting from the student where we had both the girl and boy child given equal opportunities to access education. Using more practical and engaging modes of teaching to reach out the most fundamental levels of education. It has enhanced the comprehension of the content rather than just passing the exams. As a result, there has been lowered cost regarding expenditure used. UAE being a rich country and educational costs cut down has made it get maximum support from the readily available capital. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

 

References

Information Technology Review. Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Zayed University.  J.F., Bodwen, P., Coasdale, H.R.Moore, A.H., Moore, (October 2003).

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Enduring Ideals and Pressures to Change. Arab Adolescents Facing the Future: Booth, Marilyn.(2002)

AkkariAbdeljalil (2004), “Education in the Middle East and North Africa” United Arab Emirates

The attitude towards technology and their computer experience. ‘Elementary school principals’  Akababa-Altun, S. (2001, September)