Ideal Skills of an Data Analyst

The ideal digital analyst focuses on the mining all the data collected and evaluating exactly what the customer wants. They are responsible for the products owner in helping in important decision making on the things that will deliver a great impact on the digital experience. Knowledge on how to utilize filters, goal setting and ecommerce transactions and custom reports and dashboards are important ways that can be used to analyze data traffic to a site, (Google analytics, 2016). An ideal digital analyst therefore be aware of all of these factors and how best to utilize them to get the right kind of feedback.

Data without filters can be wrong. An ideal digital analyst should be able to create filters. Filters help in modification of data in a flexible manner in every field. They help in aligning data that suits any business.  Knowing what kind of data an analyst is looking will help in know what data to filter and the best method to filter the data. For example, if the analyst wants to exclude data from the company’s intranet, a filter that includes all the IP addresses that will should be excluded can be set up, (Google analytics, 2016). Filters can also be used to track activity in a particular directory. If interested in tracking a particular directory or country, the filters can be used to filter information from these areas only.  Once the filters have been set, there is no going back and it is important that according to the type of data one needs, to maintain a raw data.

As a digital analyst it will be important to have the ability to setup a specific action that can be used to analyze the flow of users in that particular website. This is done by setting up funnels that are used to create goals, (Google analytics, 2016). This helps in understanding the user experience, what they do when they visit the page and in what order and thus understanding what value this has to the particular business. Deciding the best type of goal to set among the four available is a task that should be taken seriously. A goal is supposed to push forward business growth otherwise it should not be undertaken. Apart from the goal conversion, the ecommerce transactions can be used to measure how a business is performing. The two however are success indicators and at times the e-commerce can be used for non-commerce purposes if the analyst is skilled.

Custom reports and dashboards are able to summarize the large amount of data collected into something that makes sense.When creating custom reports, it is important that the analysist focuses on outcomes. The custom-made reports combine to come up with different KPIs that provide a comprehensive and high level view of business presentation for exact audiences. For an ideal data analyst, it will be important to be conversant with the custom reports and dashboards so enable them track the traffic in their webpage. Through my research I found out that there are different types of dashboards and customs reports that can used dependent on the suitability of the user.

This module has expanded my knowledge on google analytics and how I can track activities of visitors to a particular page. With my extended research outside the class, I found out the importance of advanced analytics and I can now utilize them even though will a little more practice. In future, use of more elaborate examples to help the students in understanding the concept better would be recommended. Going through the whole process from the creation of an account to creation of custom reports should be encouraged. More time spend on a particular section maybe could help the learners grasp more and internalize the material that is being presented.

 

CLOUD COMPUTING AND IT SERVICES

Introduction

The proliferation of networked devices, Internet services, and simulations has led to huge volumes of data being produced. Cloud computing has been defined as a computing paradigm,wherebyseveral systems are linked together in private or public networks,to offer dynamically scalable infrastructure for applications, data and storage of files (Abadi, 2012, p, 9). With the discovery of this technology,the expenses of computation, application hosting, contentstorage and delivery has been minimized. Cloud computing serves as a proven delivery model, with many firms noticing its outstanding agility and efficiency benefits. This paper will focus on the whole aspect of cloud computing.

Benefits of Cloud Computing

Flexibility-Users/businesses are able to scale up their services so that they can fit well/meet their needs, customize applications and access cloud services from everywhere and anywhere provided that they are connected to the internet.

Security-a cloud host’s all-time job entails monitoring security, which is significantly efficient when compared to conventional in-house system, where firms divide their efforts between a several IT issues, with security being one of them.The key to this enhanced security is the encryption of data being transmitted over networks and stored in databases.Through using encryption, information cannot be accessed by hackers or unauthorized people.

Cheaper-Once you’re on the cloud, easy access to your company’s data will save time and money in project start-ups.Majority of the cloud computing services are pay-as-you-go. About 50% of all CIOs and IT leaders surveyed by Bitglass indicated cost savings in 2015 after using cloud-based applications (Velte, Toby and Velte, 2010, p, 137).

Quality control- In a cloud-based system, every document are kept/stored in a single location and in a uniform format. With all staff accessing the similar information, firms are able to maintain consistency in data, minimize human error, and have a clear record of revisions or updates.

Drawbacks ofCloud Computing

Need for Reliable Internet Service-As more mission-critical work is carried out via theweb, firms will require more bandwidth and fewer, if any, failures in Internet connectivity (Abadi, 2012, p, 9). In the even consistent Internet access, connection speed/bandwidth are challengesin one’s firm, cloud solutions might not be necessary for the firm/individuals at this time

Security concerns– cloud data can be accessible from anywhere via the weband which means that if a data breachhappensthrough hacking, a disgruntled staffs, or careless username and password security, your firm’s datamight be compromised.

Cloud Vendors Going out of Business-Cloud computing is a fast changing field, and there is thedanger that cloud vendors may go out of business or quickly change their service(Velte, Toby and Velte, 2010, p, 141).

When should a firm purchase its IT services from the Cloud?

The right time that firms can purchase its IT services from cloud is when the firm has grown in size, it has a huge customer base and employee base. This would ensure that the firm is able to enhance its service delivery and ensure it becomes more flexible. Moreover, as a firm grows in size, it becomes more prone to hacking hence using cloud computing would ensure this risk is kept at bay.

Implication for IT oversight and the firm’s governance of those systems

Governance of IT entails the creation of a structure for aligning business strategy with IT strategy and offers means for measuring the performance and benefits of IT.  A good IT governance structureestablishes a clear and consistent direction with standards for people, process and technology to follow(Abadi, 2012, p, 12).Moreover, governance is at the center of effective management of the IT function to guarantee that companiesare realizing maximum value from their investments in information technology.

The implication that IT has on the governance and oversight of these systems is that: There will need to be an assurance that IT assets (system and processes among others) are executed and used based on the agreed-upon policies and procedures.It also demands that these assets are properly regulated and maintained and also ensure that the assets are offering value to the company (supporting the company’s strategy and business objectives) (Velte, Toby and Velte, 2010, p, 145). IT governance and oversight therefore entails the techniques and policies which measures and controls how systems are managed and whether they achieving the set objectives of the company.

Open source environment and strategic advantage gained over the competition

Open source software is software that has a source code which anyone may inspect, alter, and improve.Open source software has a history of reputation of being secure when compared to closed source.Open source code lets users judge how secure a program is unlike closed software whereby users are not able to judge or alter how the program operates (Broberg, Rajkumar Buyya, Zahir Tari,2011, p, 1013).Open source software’smeans there are more sets of eyes to note security holes and fix them. Open source ensures that patching of software is done a little bit faster hence, there is no need to contact the vendor about a bug. By been able to inspect, alter, and make improvement offers strategic gain over the competition in that one is able to ensure security of their data. The last strategic advantage through using open source relates to the fact that one is able to solve their enterprise issues while effectively sharing some of the maintenance expenses. One crucial merit of open source revolves around the involvement of the community. Instead of writing an application and having to sustain it, one is able to share maintenance cost and sustaining applications among several parties.

In conclusion, cloud computing has brought with numerous benefits and drawbacks to firms. The implication IT governance and oversight on cloud computing relates to the techniques and policies that measures and controls how systems are managed and whether they achieving the set objectives of the company.

 

References

Anthony T. Velte, Toby J. Velte, (2010). Robert Elsenpeter, Cloud Computing: A Practical          Approach. McGraw Hill Publications, pp 135 –144.

Daniel J. Abadi, (2012). Data Management in the Cloud: Limitations and Opportunities,

IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, Volume 32, 3-12

James Broberg, Rajkumar Buyya, Zahir Tari, (2011) MetaCDN: Harnessing „Storage Clouds‟      for high Performance content delivery, Journal of Network and Computer Applications,     1012–1022,

 

 

Cybercrime

Abstract:

Cybercrime is an offense that occurs on the computer and the Internet world.Cybercrimes are one of the biggest problems in cyber world so that it needs to be obliterated as soon as possible. Examples of cyber crime are identified theft, financial fraud, website defacement, and cyber bullying. The invention of internet-enhanced people in exchanging information based on networks of computers. The crime began in 1960s and it is heightening as the technology improves. The cyber crime has caused many effects such as; security effects, loss of money and so on. They can be summed up by the psychological or physical harm caused by the cyber crime.Turning various acts to have been passed by time. Implementing punishments over the crime can be one good step to overcoming such as well as making people get to know their rights and duties.

Contents

  1. Introduction. 1

2       Cyber crime History. 1

  1. Effects of Cyber Crime. 2
  2. Conclusion. 4
  3. Introduction

Cyber crime is a terminology used to refer to criminal activity involving a computer. Commonly know examples are identified theft, financial fraud, website defacement, and cyber bullying. In an organization, the cyber crime can involve hacking of databases. Today the crime is becoming sophisticated as the technology advances. In cybercrime, a different tool is used such as theft, fraud, extortion, a crime against a person and computer incidental. The crime causes either psychological or physical harm. The paper will discuss the history of cyber crime and the effects the cyber crime has in an organization and conclusions according to the current technology (Gerdes, 45)

  • CyberCrime History.

Marcum (23) argues that, in 1960’s is when we had the first publication of cybercrime report. During this era, computers used were large mainframe systems. The crimes commonly experienced during this time were majorly coming from within the cyberspace. Therefore, these meant workers would access the computer. The cyber crime in between the 1960s and 1970s was different from the cyber crime we faced with today because during that time there was no existence of internet as there is today.

However in the following decades, computer network has increased as well as people getting knowledge and creating loopholes in the crime (Marcum, 42). The invention of internet-enhanced people in exchanging information based on networks of computers.  Again, the way of doing things changed and now people are storing their data in the computer and few on paper. More so, the process is similar to the course of learning one language. Cybercrime can view in three aspects which are elaborated in the three following sections and in each section some latest cases will be studied.  A computer is attacked by a hacker who breaks into it. Alternatively, he can attack from outside. The cyber crime is the most professional out of the three cybercrime categories. The reason a criminal will do programming and ensures he makes better use of some exploits on the computer. He would always have a good computer science background. The main cyber crime types are hacking and malware (Suri, 30).

  1. Effects of Cyber Crime.

Due to the advanced technology criminals take advantage of it. The Internet is significantly used as a pavement all the scammers and miscreants. Furthermore, the internet gives the criminals trade without any identity.  Cyber crime is affecting people in several ways (Gerdes, 45)

The commonly used techniques by the scammers are phishing.  Others send false emails this person claim to be coming from financial institutions such a bank and fake it open for one credit account. Again, they trick people by opening new accounts for them and destroy their credit rating. The damage can even take longer time but in the protection of the account.

Cyber criminals also stretch to businesses either large or small. The hackers may come in as real people perhaps software engineers and convince a company on software.  Though the intention may not be suitable for their benefit.  Studies show that many organizations are losing a lot of money though cyber security (Hinson, 21).

Monetary losses can be immense especially through cyber crime. Studies show that many people are being deceived easily and fall, the victim, every day. This range from passwords theft to great monetary swindles. Consumers are getting wisdom on the old ways avenues of attack, and therefore, the cyber criminals are now developing and keep on sharpening their skills on the new techniques. Currently, mobile devices are used and social networks for illicit deals.

Reyes, (35) argues that, piracy one of the techniques in cybercrime has contributed to major effects especially on the entertainment and music industry as well as the software industry. Damage claims have been rising every year, and they are hard to estimate and to verify.   Estimations have been reaching even millions and billions of money every year.  To respond on such incidences, copyright holders have been lobbying for stricter laws. The law is against intellectual property theft that can result in. These laws only allow copyright holders in targeting file sharers and sue them for large sums of money to counteract the financial damage of their activities online.

It will sound defenseless if the military technology is stolen and strengthening potential opponents as well as harming export markets. They can be situated strategically such as in aerospace, advanced materials, and the high-tech products (Girds, 45).

Similarly, computer viruses that can generate havoc on your PC system are just as criminal. The viruses can cost companies millions and dollars in time to repair an infected system. Organizations are now having sections of their website devoted to cyber-crime, with In the viruses can as well be passed to a computer unexpectedly through different formats.  The viruses can manifest through emails, software that is infected, not forgetting the diskettes or computer documents. Furthermore, for one to regularly run Internet web browsing which causes significant problems he or she should be keen with the known security exploits the Operating System of the computer being used. Otherwise, this can also be a loophole.  Unknowingly, someone may come in and open stuff thinking they are a legitimate webpage. Unfortunately, the downloads may have viruses. Currently, when people talk about cybercrimes, they may not understand the extent of these crimes (Gerdes, 45).

This problem is not only affecting developing countries but also developed countries such as the US which suffered more than 74million people in cyber crimes that occurred in 2010. As today’s consumer has become increasingly dependent on computers and networks, the risk of being subjected to cybercrimes also has high.  With an increase in the economy leads to an increase in the use of the internet. Therefore, the higher the exposure to cyber crimes. Staggeringly, stocks are traded via The Internet, bank transactions are performed through Internet and purchases are made using the credit card via The Internet. Therefore, productivity is probably at risk. Attacks from viruses will take productive time from the user. Machines could perform more slowly, servers might be accessible, and the network might be jammed and so on. Such instances of attacks affect the overall productivity of user and organization (Suri, 29)

As cyber-attackers intrude into others’space and try to break the logic of the page, the end customer visiting the concerned page will be frustrated and discouraged to use the said site on a long term basis. Making the customer have their confidence lost in the said site and the Internet. Consumer perception a be just as powerful or damaging as fact. Even the slightest perception of security risk or amateurish commerce seriously jeopardizes potential business (Reyes, 36).

Many groups of professionals are using computers today. The modern military also makes use of advanced computers heavily. When intruders find systems that are easy to break into, they only hack into the systems.  Both terrorists and criminals make their plans and implement their criminal activities with the help of information technology. The increase in international interaction and the wide spread usage of information technology has facilitated the growth of crime and terrorism (Hynson, 54).

McIntosh, (16) suggested that, because of the advanced communication technology, people want to be mobile for the planning of such deals.  This is what has been giving terrorists and criminals some security loopholes in the system. Again, it has been observed that they normally have unusual locales rather their country of residence. The crimes usually originate from developing countries. It could be because many people lack employment.

The security hacks have been entertained by the corruption that has considerably been witnessed in the developing countries. As much as we might want to eradicate the crime, theinternet has helped fund such offenses using fraudulent bank transaction or money transfer. Greater encryption technology is supporting these criminal activities (Hynson, 67).

  1. Conclusion

The cyber crimes have ben an ongoing challenge besides advancements made by many countries. Consequently, there is a desperate need for countries on a global scale to come together and decide on what constitute a cybercrime and develop ways in which to persecute criminals across different countries. It is almost impossible to reduce cybercrimes from the cyber-space. Turning various acts to have been passed by time. Implementing punishments over the crime can be one good step to overcoming such as well as making people get to know their rights and duties. Nevertheless, business should employ practices where their employees follow proper safety practices to ensure that integrity and confidentially of stored information is kept at all times to combat cyber crimes. Undoubtedly, cybercrimes are one of the biggest problems in cyber world so that it needs to be obliterated as soon as possible.

 

Works Cited

Gerdes, L. I. Cyber crime. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Print.

Hynson, Colin. Cyber Crime. Mankato: Smart Apple Media, 2012. Print.

Marcum, Catherine D. Cyber Crime. N.p., 2014. Print.

McIntosh, N. Cyber crime. Chicago, IL: Raintree, 2003. Print.

Reyes, A. Cyber crime investigations: Bridging the gaps between security professionals, law enforcement, and prosecutors. Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub, 2007. Print.

Suri, R K, and T N. Chhabra. Cyber Crime. New Delhi: Pentagon Press, 2002. Print.

Evaluation of a Change inthe New In-House PICC Program

Introduction

PICC is an acronym that stands for Peripheral Inserted Central Cather. The program is a form of intravenous access that uses a very long period time. Mostly the technique is commonly applied when prolonged chemotherapy, antibiotic therapy and parental nutrition is needed to a patient. A program requires special personnel who are PICC certified in order to carry out this service effectively. Shifting PICC services from hospital based to community will be successful if the implementation of strategies is good(Sergio Sandrucci, 2014). The idea of introducing an in-house dialysis and in-house bronchoscopy will save a healthcare organization thousands of dollars.

Since the execution of a PICC, service to a patient is a very sensitive technique, taking it to be home-based will require high level of supervision in the first phase of its implementation. The preceding phases can be less supervised when patient are trained and educated on how to maintain the service while still at home. For instance, patients with renal failure can continue dialyzing themselves at home after a nurse has fixed the process for them. Definitely, the program will be very beneficial to both the patients, clinicians and the healthcare organization at large(Sergio Sandrucci, 2014).

For any organization planning to implement a program, firstly, they should have a plan for evaluation, the organization should question itself; what is the core reason for creating and delivering PICC program. Answering this question will enable an organization to determine the expectation that will emanate from their program. In this stage, the organization is simply be putting the cart before the horse assessment technique. The findings from the evaluation plan are sharable among entire participant in order to achieve harmony in the execution of the program(Richard S. Irwin, 2008).

Secondly, the organization is supposed to train its staff technically to make them familiarize with PICC program in-house based. Training of staffs to a new set of program is necessary to make them comprehend why and how to follow particular stages are steps, and why certain apparatuses are required(Frances A. Maurer, 2012). However, to ease the process of achieving the program objectives, the organization should train both staffs, patients and stakeholders of the program. The act of familiarizing with a pilot program is more helpful in the evaluation plan.

Thirdly, the organization should device the method of evaluation and use the effectively, for example, record keeping; there should be a proper monitoring of timelines and ensure the schedule attached with patients’ check-ups are strictly followed. Follow up on patients under home dialysis is important to avoid cases of mishandling the service. Moreover, the organization should maintain both flexible and fixed budgets of the program. Keeping a budget is of importance because, the organization will be able to value both actual and estimated costs necessary(Richard S. Irwin, 2008). Additionally, having an estimate of the incurred cost facilitates forecasting the feasibility of the program. Lastly, staff performance record is of importance when doing job evaluation and performance appraisal. Supervising and measuring staff performance will boost efficiency in the service delivery.

Additionally, the clinics should insist on staff reporting in every in-house dialysis and bronchoscopy undertaken. The staff reports should compile the patients’ progress at home, the effectiveness, and efficiency of the program and any constraints encountered if any. This kind of information will give a good evaluation on whether the project is success or not.

Measuring the effectiveness the effectiveness of the change brought by the new program, it will prompt for the usage of essential evaluation tools. For instance, conducting a review of the first phase of the project to establish its impacts is necessary to determine whether the program worth undertaken or not(Richard S. Irwin, 2008). A print media review can cover it in a documentary or newspapers with an aim off getting comments from the public comparing the new in-house PICC services and the pervious one that was only hospital based. In addition, public surveys with an aid of interviews and questionnaires should be included too. The organization can print open-ended questionnaires and deliver it to the public to measure their satisfaction from the new PICC program.

Determining the impact of the new program is mainly under the outcome assessment in the evaluation technique stages. Thereby, the organization can study the public’s heath change within that period. A tool like charting with patients is mostly appropriate and it is easy to evaluate the health improvement of patients. Deployment of quantitative technique like drawing bar graphs that will represents patients of kidney failures and renal defects improvement rate against time; that is over a substantial period since launching of the program and before(Frances A. Maurer, 2012).

Information gathered from the surveys on impact of the program may contain details on of mortality rate of targeted patients, their family opinions, and their self-reported behaviour. The study will be easy by secluding a group of patients and use them as a pilot project for the program(Richard S. Irwin, 2008).

In conclusion, a well-planned evaluation on in-house PICC program is achievable if it entails a clear set of plan. Evaluation Planning helps in gathering information, developing evaluation method, putting the tools of evaluation into work and finally determining the effectiveness of the outcome of the implemented program.

References

Frances A. Maurer, C. M. (2012). Community/Public Health Nursing Practice: Health for Families and Populations. Amsterdam,: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Richard S. Irwin, J. M. (2008). Procedures, Techniques, and Minimally Invasive Monitoring in Intensive Care Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sergio Sandrucci, B. M. (2014). Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters. Berlin: Springer.

 

Science and technology on culture and Ethnicity

The trending cycle of science inventions and technological changes has posed both positive and negative impacts in the society. Findings have it that, the modern society is embracing new inventions and this has completely changes the lifestyle of people. Basing on a research in Africa, an interview with a group of Africa on this topic and the findings were reliable.

In their view, they believe that the encroaching of new gargets and facilities has changed the livelihood of African culture. For instance, nowadays approximately 50% of people living in the remote areas of African countries have access to Televisions broadcast, cell phones, and internet services. According to the interviewee, having an opportunity to utilize these advanced facilities has reported several impacts. For example, youths have changed their dressing style by adopting the fashions they see on television and social media sites. One of the boys said. “We are trending with the global, no lagging behind anymore.” Moreover, some cultural practices are vanishingand being replaced with a westernized way of doing things. Initially, in African society, people never used to put much importance on birthday celebration, but today, birthdays are colorful with crazy parties.

Furthermore, they get a chance to learn some negatives aspects brought about by this new technologies stuff. Some were strongly supporting and wish these inventions should have come earlier. For example, technologies have eroded the beauty in the lifestyle of some Africans cultures but majority would never agree with this

In conclusion technology has not only has it improved the social interaction and changed some cultural practices but it has also boosted the economy with the emergence of auxiliary services like banking and insurance coverage,

Microsoft Company participations on corporate social responsibility to various stakeholders

Introduction

My essay is going to examine the Microsoft Company participations on corporate social responsibility to various stakeholders, corporate social responsibility is defined as the effort the business fraternity is paying back to its immediate stakeholders and society at large. Corporate social responsibility should cover areas like good corporate in citizens, fair view in reporting financial statement because this tend to affect shareholders in the expense of openness and transparency, treatment of employees well and generally the manner in which the company will respond back to either appreciate the participation of its clients and customers or to mitigate the negative degradation it impacts to its stakeholders(Asongu, 2007). The essay will try to focus on how Microsoft Company has interacted with its environment and the degree of synergy the two interrelation will accrue in the long run.

On a different angle, the paper also examines the negative accounts of the Microsoft Company regarding social responsibility, Microsoft products are mainly computer both hardware and software, phones and other scientific electronic devices. As much as this products are likable globally, it has been reported to be a health hazard to its users. For example, too much time on a computer in offices is associated with triggering of high heart attacks. There are also some unproven allegation terming cell phones as being responsible for triggering cancerous cells in the body of the users(William B. Werther, 2010).

The strategies employed by the company to act socially responsible tend to result into a negative impact if it’s not reviewed. I review is necessary since there is a rapid change in both social standard and science technology. An initiative adopted in the 1990s is seen obsolete today if no readjustment concerns will be placed to it. Moreover, a response adopted to participate socially responsible may be embraced in one country but the same strategy will be rejected in other country. This is due to difference in culture imperialism that makes the citizens who are Microsoft company customers feel neglected.

In my opinion basing on the evaluation and measurement my team carried to determine the level at which the Microsoft Company has performed in relation to corporate social responsibility, it’s simply excellent and strong. Firstly, Microsoft has achieved a good relationship with their employees by offering them a good working condition all over the world. It’s a company with the best payment with other social benefits found in employment terms. Moreover, it has tried as much to involve its employees in community participation, for instance, back in 2012, it was the anniversary of recognizing the ‘30th Employee Giving Campaign’, an initiative where employees give back to the community by contributing funds and sacrificing two hours of their time offering voluntary match programs.  Working with Microsoft is a dream of many grandaunts since it has a very good global image in terms of human resource management.

Another responsibility that Microsoft has made it to realization strategy is reciprocation nature to the society. The company has paid back to the society by coming up with initiative like, Microsoft youthshark, a very phenomenon initiative that strive to avail and attach approximately millions of youth all over the globe with fundamental needs like education, chances of employment and entrepreneurial skills at their advantage(W. Timothy Coombs, 2011). This initiative basic objective was to make sure each and every youth is equipped with skills and expertise needed today for both personal future achievement and for the global future as well.

In addition, Microsoft has also responded well in the AIDs pandemic in Africa as it fall in its value chain, the company  has set aside funds contribution scheme that aims at addressing the disaster AIDs is posing to some African countries. These funds are specifically for availing antiretroviral drugs to patients and establishing of Health Centre clinics that will take care of AIDs victims. The company has tried in making a real difference by paying back to the society in this manner.

Microsoft has attempted his level best to ensure an ethical transactions and operation of its business when dealing with customers and shareholders, they have achieved this by insisting on openness and transparency in its undertakings(W. Timothy Coombs, 2011). For instance, it reports financial statements and information that portrays a fair view. This further extends to the pricing criteria of its stocks and other securities. Shareholders feel confident when investing since the company does not participate in unethical misleading behaviours that might defraud and misrepresents the shareholders upon investment.

Consequently, there are some deficiencies that waters down the initiative of corporate social responsibility response by Microsoft Company. Majority of this approaches being implemented as social responsibility tools are allied with a certain benefits that the company aims at tapping from the society. This stems from the fact that managers and leaders of the Company only concentrate on harmonizing the possibility of conflict between them stakeholders while ignoring their point of coming together. This shouldn’t not be the case because a reciprocated interrelationship of the business entity and society insist that the policies implemented to act socially responsible must follow the doctrine of shared value.

Value proposition is a different angle in which the company can showcase its corporate responsibility. Under this technique, the company incline to differentiate its products considering the needs of specific customer and customize the products in their interest(Junge, 2011). Microsoft has started designing some computer products that suits specification of certain entities, government institutions and individuals(Urip, 2010). The idea behind this is to build a value proposition around its products and at the same time attaining participation in corporate social responsibility.

In value chain idea, it focuses on conducting activities that improves the performance of social responsibilities. For example. Microsoft Company pays classroom fee for some of its employees who are required to further their education and even extending training benefits to those candidates who are jobless and untrained. The company corporates with communities to aid them in scrutinizing and referring of candidates. At the end, the idea is proven to be beneficial to both the company and the community as youth are getting employment and the company is achieving its social responsibility at the same time. A good combination of both the value chains and investment tools makes it difficult to distinguish corporate social responsibility and the company’s business in due course.

The company should aim at identifying the meeting point between them and society, it can achieve this by employing inside-out linkages techniques which entails them encroaching towards the society while undertaking their normal business operations. Nearly all activities carried out by the company’s value chain poses some impacts in the environment in which the company operates. This implies that the company should consider the impact its day to day business poses to the community. Such as health cases associated with overspending computer usage in offices.

As much as some as there are some business activity incline to affect the community, there are also some external activities which also pose a negative impact to the operation of the company amounting to the effect of outside-in linkages(Junge, 2011). This external factors can be, unhealthy competition from other related companies like apple, Hewlett Packard, effect of government rules and regulation which puts the company on a narrow leverage. The failure to acquire competent human resource is due to number of influences such as racial discrimination and lack of health and housing facilities(Junge, 2011).

In conclusion Microsoft Company has greatly achieved its duty to act socially responsible. First, they have tried to identify the meeting point between them and the society because they are fully aware of it symbiosis relationship since their relationship are interdependent. However, Microsoft has tried to avoid being generic in their corporate social responsibility participation and instead coming up with strategies that suits their industries and preventing being indifferent when approaching different environment.

References

Asongu, J. J. (2007). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in Practice. Greenview Precinct: Greenview Publishing Co.

Junge, N. (2011). The Contribution of Porter and Kramer’s Concept of Creating Shared Value to CSR Theory. Muchen: GRIN Verlag.

Urip, S. (2010). CSR Strategies: Corporate Social Responsibility for a Competitive Edge in Emerging Markets. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

  1. Timothy Coombs, S. J. (2011). Managing Corporate Social Responsibility: A Communication Approach. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

William B. Werther, J. D. (2010). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Stakeholders in a Global Environment. California: SAGE Publications.

Global warming and global politics

According to Mathew Peterson, Global warming and global politics pg. 135 global warming is the dynamic increase of temperature on earth’s atmosphere. Profoundly this is attributed to an increase in the optimum levels of chlorofluorocarbons, carbon (II) oxide, none- biodegradable gasses and other pollutants. Globally there are efforts everywhere to counter the effects of global warming both on scientific front or Christian front. Unfortunately, there are Christians who hold a high zeal in their traditional beliefs that pose a stumbling block to the efforts. It has led to an open secret conflict assumption between scientists and Christians. According to Catherine (2009)“A Climate for ChangeGlobal Warming Facts for Faith-Based Decisions” scientist do not accept what faith holds with regards to global warming. Thus she is on the forefront in the effort to convince Christians that global warming is not a phenomena or theory but a fact. Moreover, there is no competition between science and faith. Evasively, she uses many logical ways and rational explanations to convince Christians that global warming is real. Therefore his arguments forms the basis of our discussion.

A large population in America are people with diverse religious traditions, norms, affiliations that identify them and almost lead to the same perceptions in the context of global warming. Catherine Hayhoe believes that there is a breakdown in the communication on facts regarding global warming. The information laid portrays two worlds that are so incompatible in terms of Christian values and what science states. However,there is no rivalry between faith and science. Inspired by her father, she believed in the existence of God, an apprehension that does not necessarily need proof. However, science gives more light as to what the world looks like by virtue of what we see, experience and experiment around us in the natural world. Religion emphasizes the need to care for the less vulnerable and less fortunate in the society. Researchshows that climate change affects the poor, having Christian values in mind, there is a literal obligation forthem to care about the environment. Making science and religion exist mutually.

Despite having a significant number of Americans understanding that global warming is real and primarily it’s caused by people, a large percentage of evangelists have a different understanding of the same. Firstly they hold that scientist are people who do not believe in God. Secondly is the common fallacy among evangelicals that the word is coming to end anytime, therefore neglecting the need to care for the environments but their beliefs. All this is happening while we see villages sinking, crippling and prolonged droughts, and rivers drying up. Catherine says that evangelicals ought to discover that something is not right somewhere by all this evidences.

According to research Heyhoe identifies the misconceptions held by evangelicals on climate change. According to them Conservation is conservative. With regards to this, Catherine does not only see the evangelicals as people with religious conformity but also a mean indicator of politically conservative people in the society. The irony is that in their conservatism, they fail to protect the natural resources for tomorrow. Many of them neglect climate change issues because of their perception towards government strategies to counter the same. Then maybe they ought to be embracing the simple forms that are so friendly like using wind energy that is in abundance in the United States.

Some evangelicals believe that God can’t let ‘this’ happen. They believe that climate change is beyond human ability because to change. Trying to find a solution to climate change would be arrogance and outrageous to God. Catherine argues that it is evident from the Bible that God gave us freedom to make decisions. Freedom to make decision makes the future lie in our hands, therefore whatever we do now has repercussions. Thus climate change is a result of a wrong decision made by people and global warming is the consequence. The only redemption point is taking corrective measure.

Global warming makes the world vulnerable to burning, however evangelicals hold that the Bible does not approve burning of the world. She concurs with the perception, however, it comes out that evangelicals have end-time belief. The belief lays end-time judgment upon an individual consequently undermining the concern about preserving the world. On contrary, she realizes that the same bible that breeds evangelical zeal refutes the same perception. According to Paul’s message in second ThessalonianstheBible talks about being our brother’s keeper, thus we ought not to let the world burn or neglect it with the view of it coming to end soon. It teches on how to make the world a better place for everyone because no one knows the time.

Lastly, there is an upheaval between scientists and Christian community. Evangelical believe that the earth is still at a tender age. However, scientists like Hayhoe, by virtue of astrophysics believe that the earth is ancient. Logically she doesn’t find the time variations in understanding of the earth to be a big deal. Instead, they should look at how substantially humans have tampered with the world in whatever period frame and look for a way to correct.

In conclusion, from Hayhoe’s explanation, logic, and arguments, science is not in any competition with faith. Christians ought to understand that even with their zeal in religious beliefs, the same Bible directly and indirectly puts them under the obligation to care for the world. Whatever is happening now is a consequent of a mistake donebefore, and thus global warming is real.

American culture

American culture means the customs and tradition held by individuals in the United States. However, it comprises of the religion; the belief and system of worship with regards to faith. Nevertheless, religion can also be described as the pursuit or interest to which individuals ascribe with absolute importance. Secondly American culture attributes to food; it can be regarded to the Americans daily diet, their regard to food as a deal and symbolic to important and significant occasions e.g. birthday’s cakes, baby showers ice creams and more important events. Moreover how the food is eaten and the utensils used also defines an individual culture. Thirdly culture is regarded in terms of how the food is ate, what people in America wear and how they wear it, the language, marriage, entertainment, the morals; which implies to what people see as wrong or right. What makes the right thing right and what makes the wrong thing. Then lastly it’s about how people interact with others or people close to them.

America is among the top largest countries in the world with a vast, diverse population with different cultures. This has made America be susceptible cultural influence from across all corners of the world. Primarily this has been catalysed by the virtue of America being a country of immigrants. Most importantly English, who colonized America and the Latin Americans, Native Americans, Asians and Africans. It has made almost every individual in America to trace his cultural authenticity from other cultures. With this in mind, then we are nagged by the question of how the Asian culture has had a significant influence on the larger American society.

  1. Definition of terms;

(i)         Cultural integration; cultural integration is where we have separate antecedents, for example, in this case, the Africans, Latin Americans, Native Americans and Asians merging to form a joint cultural mix. In the United, States is perceived as the best hope of the wellbeing of the human beings. According to GarcíaCanclini (2003: 279) Integration is a mutually consented contact that breeds independence that has got little or no alteration on who the partners are, it does not fall on factors like geography, proximity and adjacency. Thus, integration implies putting different cultures together to form a hybrid culture that has particles of each parent. When immigrants integrate to create a new culture, it is not that easy. That’s why in the United States of America, this can be traced from the period between 1900 up to 2007. There is a need to understand the dynamics of each culture, to have a know-how of the external and internal changes that come by each stage of integration.

(ii)        Cultural assimilation;

Is the process whereby an individual or a group of people who are identified by an absolute authentic culture come to resemble those of other cultures? Primarily in the United States of America, it has been used to refer to the immigrants. Their degree of influencing the Americans in resembling who they are. According to Jiménez, Tomás R. (2005). “Assessing Immigrant Assimilation pg. 105–125. A complete assimilation comes into existence when new members of other groups conform to become indistinguishable faces or members of the other group. Thus in the United States of America, It is the spontaneous adoption and infiltration of the Asian culture through contact and communication or association due to its relevance and perception. On the other hand, it is the way the Asian culture is imitated by Americans spontaneously by virtue of them migrating and settling in the United States.

However Asian cultural assimilation can be divided into;

  1. Behavioural assimilation or acculturation

During the period of cold war, America became more superior as it had exhibited an extended period of peace. There was a clarity in its superiority over other nations, and this made many European countries look to United States as a helping hand. Profoundly the Asian fell victims of being immigrants in the United States of America. As newcomers, they had to absorb the American culture and also influence the Americans to incorporate their cultural norms, beliefs, values and behavioural patterns and trends. As a consequent, there has been a new dominant immersion and identification of the American society.

  1. Structural assimilation; It is where the Asians immigration led to the integration of the political, social, economic and cultural sectors to conform and look like them. The Asians came to be part of the United States economy, political structure; where some even vie for important political seats.

(iii)       Cultural adoption; Asian immigrants found the economic life in the United States of America to him so hard and tough. Therefore, they had to find by all means a way or means of mechanism to survive. Among the ways of survival was through cross-cultural programs embedded in relationships of power.

(iv)       Cultural diversification; United States of America is a home of immigrants where we do not have a monoculture. Having many nationals immigrating into America creates a country with several different cultural variations that respect each other. The existence of these many various cultural variations in the United States creates cultural diversity. With regards to the Asians in America, the influence can be termed in relation to language, dress code and common traditions associated with the Asians.

(v)        Cultural metamorphism; It is the profound transitional variation or change that occurs with time from one stage to another. It’s the observed change from the structural, form and substance point of view. Asian immigration had a significant shift in the appearance and character of the Americans from time immemorial up to date. According to Lawrence ‘metamorphism in culture and housing design’ pg. 42. The architectural environments and surroundings in which different cultures exist, for example, in this case, the American and Asian culture exist, give birth to a total configuration of social, psychological, demographical and behaviour based changes.

(vi)       Cosmopolitan society; It’s a social frame of the community, the way of life, production, pleasure, fate, capital flows, globally shared failures and success, impending economic and ecological catastrophes resulting in sociological concept like class and referent power. It’s where people embrace demographics according to the multicultural.

(vii)      Current trends; they are perceptions towards the know-how of the significant changes in the culture changes that has come in the second decade of the second millennium. Many people see it as a reflection of the world now as compared to how the world was in the past one decade. The developments and prospects for a near future.

(viii)     Food and Cookery; primarily it was associated with the skill, knowledge, practice and know-how of preparing certain food. The use of certain utensils like forks as influenced by other cultures.

(ix)       Entertainment takes over; it’s the way the Asian culture has changed the theatre industry, including music and movie of the United States of America. All these put together, the principal concern is the audience. There are several ways that the Asian culture has influenced the American culture in order to ‘keep up’ its audience capacity in the entertainment, private recreation and leisure sector.

 

  1. Theoretical framework;

As time goes by there is a developing urge and rise of rhetorical questions that need answers to address how Asian culture has influenced the American culture. History tells us that America is a country of immigrants. Significantly the Africans and the Asians; the Japanese and Chinese. Eventually drawing us to try and find out why and how the Asian cultural influence came to stand out among all others. Especially given that learning is a continuous process that integrates personal and environmental experiences and practices directed to having or enriching an individual’s knowledge, values, perceptions and character. The influence of the Asian culture is basically based on its power to align the attention, judgement, thinking and evaluation of the Americans in the Asian way.

  1. Methodology;

(i)         Use of questionnaires;

It is a quantitative way of collecting our research data and information. In our case, we use open ended and closed form of surveys to determine statistical data and cultural influence as observed in government institutions, individuals and a group of people.

(ii)        Respondents from interviews. The second method of collecting the evidence to show the Asian cultural influence on the Americans is through interviewing. It’s where we have a conversation with a respondent; either in the form of a group or individual. We ask questions both open and leading to the interviewee and write down feedback. The feedback is a standard part of a quantitative research based on the interviewee’s opinion, facts and perceptions. In our research, we will carry out interviews with the public to the private world.

(iii)       Historical research;

With regards to our research work, our historical research will base upon interpreting various past events between the Asians and the Americans. Factors that made them come together, the integration and how everything synthesized to give rise to the outstanding Asian culture in United States.

(iv)       Library books, journals, magazines and newsletters;

We will extend our research to the books in the library, primarily this will be a supplement to getting the historical information. Journals like the American times will give us the current trends in the already influenced American culture. Exactly it will portray to us what is the real idea or Asian sim in United States.

(v)        Critical analysis observation and analysis of current trends; as the word itself, we will have our research based on what we see. Phenomena of visibility in our quantitative judgment, analysis and thinking. Consequently, we will give the result to what we think is the real world now, which is the current trend.

  1. Hypothesis;

There are several immigrants in the United States of America. However, Asian cultural influence stood out for the Americans.

  1. Review of related literature;

To establish the validity of our work, we found more examples and consent from the internet, great American and Asian scholars. They supported our findings with regards to relevance and originality.

  1. Limitations;

(i)         Geographical distribution;

The population in United States of America is scattered across the country. Since World War II, many people have preferred the southeast, west coast and southwest due to various ideological factors. Therefore, it poses a big hindrance to our research since the movements and settlements were not homogeneous.

(ii)        Capital; in our research capital is the back born of everything. It’s essential on the basis of current consumption with regards to resources needed for data now. Secondly in terms of future use of the data that we have now. Human capital in terms of people who are knowledgeable in the field of American and Asian history proves to be a hard task. The need to travel across United States of America and the Asian world which includes Japan, China and India is so costly. It needs a lot of money investment to cater for transport, accommodation and upkeep. The flexible exchange rates to make the capital required to be so high. The time involved in our research is so long, travelling, familiarizing ourselves with new places and people is time-consuming. ‘Time is money’ implying that at the end of the day if we need to come up with a relatively sensible research findings then we ought to invest heavily. Therefore, this becomes a primary concern and limitation to having an up to date and useful research findings.

(iii)       Lack of pre-consent; When carrying out this research, we need to have a clue over the independent characteristics of Asian and American culture before they came into contact. Therefore, it implies studying or getting information about the two separately. If we want to know the real historical culture of Asians of time immemorial, then we need to identify people who know about it. It might prove to be something hard given we ought to find out if it will go with age or historical understanding. Getting to know this clearly and understanding the same is not an easy task. Therefore, we become susceptible to being given biased or prejudiced information on the basis of egoism, patriotism and level of cultural pride. As a consequent, we may end up having research statistics and data that is so biased due to lack of pre-consent.

(iv)       Demographic integration; after the immigration and settlement, there were intermarriages and intermingling. It led to conformity and loss cultural income, Asian and American people structure and population. There was the rise of a new face in terms of culture, thus making it harder to establish what the real American culture was and the Asian culture. Making it harder to know and determine the perceived influence of the Asian culture on American.

  1. BODY.
  2. history of the American culture;

American cultural history can be traced from the time of civil wars, new world encounters and now. United States of America is an Anglo majority state; where English is the dominant language, and the colonial British culture was left to have a significant influence in terms of language, ethnicity, history and culture. During the times of economic dominance America was primarily known as a country of slavery and continuous economic and social inequalities.

b.History of Asian culture;

Asia was conservatively known as western-centric bock. It was made of many heterogeneous countries with different distinct culture. However, the most common cultural tie includes the Asian art, literature, entertainment and cuisine. Religion also played a significant role in their relationship with the western world.

  1. How the two came together and the effects;

Asians and Americans entered into contact during the pre-colonial periods. Profoundly it was as a result of immigration, however after World War II, America had experienced a considerable period of peace. Therefore, economically it was way ahead of many other European countries that had heavily invested in the war. Therefore making Asian countries in dire need of American help. In search of greener pastures, many Asians moved to America during this period.

  1. Characteristics of the American culture;

America being among the largest countries across the globe, and a home for many immigrants consisted of many religion, languages and colours. Individuals here believed in freedoms, varying from expression, choice and worship. There is a culture of individualism, pride and down to earth to self-actualization or power superiority. Lastly, they follow the rule of law.

  1. The characteristics of Asian culture;

Asians were perceived to be communists that strongly held family values. Their culture is basically colonized by group or multitude psychological. Self-control was highly occupied by individuals. They are down to earth and hardworking, keep time and always using the little opportunities to exploit their potentials. Many parents used to define the laws and children were obliged to follow with no obligation. At times and moments, the American cultural affiliation dependedon who someone was in the society.  Profoundly described by the family history, political power, social class and referent power they had. Therefore there was no clear or universal code to describe what American culture was. It all depended on how an individual justified whatever he did or intended to do

  1. What makes the American culture more vulnerable to the Asian culture?

American culture had more freedom. There were universal norms that defined what was wrong and what was right. The decision one takes depended upon his justification and interpretation to what makes something the right decision right and the wrong one wrong. However, on the other hand, the Asian culture lay clear lines between what was commonly perceived as wrong and right.

  1. What makes the Asian culture stand out among all other cultures?

Over time, despite being exposed to many cultures, analysis shows that the Asian influence of the American culture has come to stand. This was done in comparison to other cultures and the affect the American culture had on the Asian culture. Profoundly arguments show that it’s exhibited in individual’s personality, religion, entertainment, cookery and use of herbal medicine. All these attributes made the Asian culture be more objective in America, unlike others that were so subjective. Americas, in the long run, came to accept part of it in a daily way of life that best suited them

  1. What evidence shows that the Asian culture has had an influence on the American culture?

Asians were part of the many immigrants who came to United States of America at different pre-colonial period. Upon their settlement and integration by virtue of contact and communication, there was the birth of their influence on the American culture and social change. The American Society has been a victim of the Asian cultural influence at large, profoundly exhibited in the fact that they brought their cookery when they were migrating. Asian food thus has been made the most notable, transplanted and culturally adopted culture by the Americans. In 1856 in the American business directory statistics showed that there were five best-known restaurants and thirty-eight groceries among much more Chinese food commercial enterprises in San Francisco alone. I n the early stages of immigration the Asians, especially the Chinese cooked their own meals and even visited their own restaurants and hotels alone. Due to the alienation and discrimination that they faced while settling in the United States, they were gradually forced to into menial service jobs commonly in the restaurants. As a consequent restraint employment and kitchens became their areas of specialization. They picked up cooking jobs where they improved on their cultural authentic cooking skills and worked as food professionals. There was the rise of the Chinese restaurants and other service workshops such as laundry. The two became the fundamental elementary labels for the Chinese Americans. Cooking being their area of specialization, they had to find a new way of attracting more customers who were their hosts; Americans. Therefore, they came up with ‘sweet and sour pork’ as authentic Chinese food in the United States of America which became an additional incentive to the attraction of the American customers to their restaurants. In contrast, the restaurants in China had nothing like the sweet and sour pork Thus this was just their own cultural influential incentive in America to attract more customers. Consequently, there was a subsequent rise and development of many ‘chop suey houses’ in major American states like Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago and Washington D.C. Currently in the United States of America the Chinese restaurants have become a familiar face in the American society and the America a bigger part of the American cooking has become a disguised trademark of the Asian culture.

  1. Asians, especially the Chinese were ethnically skilled and associated with herbal medicine. Operating with the same alienation and discrimination conditions and environments that led them venture into restaurants jobs, the Chinese used herbal medicine because they had limited capital from income. As more immigrants came, the number of more herbal doctors increased with time to serve the community. After a while when the herbal medicine proved effective, there was a cultivate trust in the Americans too. Consequently, the herbal doctors started serving the whole community at large, whereby it included both the Chinese and the American patients. The herbal doctors had a greater cultural influence on the American society more than the Chinese cousin from the restaurants. Unlike the cookery where the food flavours had to be slightly adjusted to suit the Americans too, the herbal medicines could not change their ingredients. Therefore, the American patients had no obligation but to take it the way it was in the Chinese cultural form. However, the main setback was that the traditional herbs that were used to make the medicine used to be imported from China. Thus at times they faced American importation restrictions that were based on the rules, regulations and laws. It created a business and cultural dilemma, whereby both patients; Americans and Chinese ought to be served, herbal doctors business had to go on but the government rules, regulations and laws had to be adhered to. Thus there was a need for both parties to find a way out of this, and the Chinese herbal doctors opted to expand, build and develop their ethnic business network in the United States. On the other hand, the American authority had to compromise by virtue of standardization and regulation of the herbal medicine. It led to more sense of belonging and believe in the Chinese herbal medicine mainstream. Currently, a larger percentage of the American population has adopted to the Chinese herbal medicine therapy. In his literature Liu, Haiming. “The Resilience of Ethnic Culture: Chinese Herbalists in the American Medical Profession.” Journal of Asian American Studies (1998) 173–191

Chinese herbal medicine in America has been a sole expression of Asian cultural influence on the American society. Furthermore, it shows how the  Asian-American ability to shape up to a universal conformity in the cultural migration

Recently in the immigration statistics index, the Asian population surpassed Hispanics as the biggest immigrant population in the United States of America.

According to Richard Corliss  “Anna May Wong Did It Right’’ (2005) Asian Americans have been intermingling in the entertainment industry since the better half that ends the 19th century. Many of Asians who had settled in the United States had by law become naturalized citizen. Unfortunately in the early years Asians had no bigger opportunities in the theatre and entertainment industries in America. However in the recent times of commercial prosperity in Asia, the movie sectors and the audience commanded has greatly influenced the American entertainment. Primarily there is an escalating influence of China in Hollywood Christian movies. Current research shows that China has grown to be the immediate competitor of America in the film industry. Moreover, the trend is seen to surpass likely America in the next few years in terms of earnings. In a real sense, Americas market survival will depend on tailor made movies based on the Asian communist virtues. However, there is a perception that regards Christianity in China with western imperialism, thus holding American evangelism with a lot of doubts. In turn, this has put the Chinese Christian movies on an upper hand due to its diversity and freedom in the market.

Study and statistics in the ministry of education show that many students in America are taking Chinese as their second language in schools. Primarily this is seen as an eye opener in the economically, politically and socially dynamic world laying out business and political opportunities, making Chinese trendsetters. Currently, there are opinion polls from almost fifty-seven countries across the world where almost fifty-one thousand people were interviewed that shows atheism is on the rise. Asian countries have exhibited the most rise in atheism. Particularly the main concern is not to whether people have a place of worship or not, it has led to a drastic decline of religious self-description. As a consequent, all these has been put in the form of movies and entertainment, thus gathering a lot of audience across the globe. In order for Hollywood to keep pace with this competition, it has come to adjust to the cultural perception of the Asian world. Why? Because it has been seen as the only way to maintain and increase their sales and audience

  1. CONCLUSION.
  2. the outcome statement.

In conclusion, the Asian culture has had a greater significant cultural impact on America than any other culture. All this can be associated with its enterprising population and circumstances. However there are more other forms that the American culture has influenced the Asian culture, but the conservative characteristics of the Asian culture make the impact hard to be seen. On the other hand, the openness of the American culture has opened vivid evidence to the effects of the Asian culture.

  1. Thesis;

Over time, critical analysis has shown that due to the cultural integration, there was the cultural interchange between the Americans and the Asians. However, the Asian culture has commanded more referent power with regards to influence. Profoundly it’s argued that Asian influence is exhibited in a change of Americans personality, religion, entertainment, cookery and use of herbal medicine. Nevertheless, there is a relative percentage that shows how the American culture has influenced the Asian culture. From time immemorial, Historically America was inhabited by the Latin America, Native America, Africans and Asians. The Asians came at the date of immigration. During this period, Asians faced a torrid period of settlement where they were subjected to alienation and discrimination. However despite being victims of circumstance, they wee so down to earth in finding survival opportunities in America. They embraced all available opportunities to their full potential, exploited them maximally and eventually among the immigrants their cultural influence stood out in the entire American society. This has posed several rhetoric questions and points of concern as to why this ought to have been this way.

References

Ma Wen Jie. Influence of American Culture on Chinese Culture. Web. 07 May 2015

http://www.ehow.com/about_6393959_influence-american-culture-chinese-culture.html

Clack, George et al. (September 1997). “Chapter 1’. One from Many, Portrait of the USA. United States Information Agency

John Lindley (1889), Treasury of Botany vol. 1. p. 435. Longmans, Green, & Co; New and rev. ed edition (1889)

 

Weather Conditions

Different weather conditions have different impacts on our environment. Over the years, various natural as well as human activities have impacted the climate in distinct ways, resulting to different responses. Examples of these responses are volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. A volcano is a vent or crater on the surface of the earth’s crust, particularly mountains and hills that allows hot lava, hot vapor, rock fragments and hot ash to erupt upward. An earth quake is sudden shaking of the ground due to movements within the crust of the earth or at times as a result of volcanic eruptions. There have been numerous accounts of volcanoes and earthquakes all over the world resulting from different weather conditions.

The planet has undergone drastic weather transformations over the period of time it has been in existence. From wide chucks of virgin land, fresh air, water and ice, today, the world is filled with human populations who have creations that serve different functions and cause different destructions. This massive human activity has impacted the weather and climate at large. There are huge changes in temperature that has facilitated the melting of ice and decantation of water back into the oceans. This has caused increased weight and pressure acting upon the solid surface of the earth and the ocean, provoking the earth to respond in different forms. Some forms of response include bending and bouncing of the crust resulting to volcanic eruptions or earth quakes and landslides. Secondly, weather changes have caused the temperatures of certain places to accelerate upwards; an example is the state of Alaska, where the temperature is three degrees Celsius higher than it was half a century ago. This in turn causes consistent melting glaciers and therefore loss of weight. As a result faults slide easily promoting an increase earth’s activity to cause earthquakes.

In conclusion, earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by changes in the weather that are either natural or as a result of human activity, they occur

Importance of managing employee separation process

Employee Separation is the process of ensuring that an employee who quits the company is exited in a structured and orderly manner

The process of employee separation is taken quite seriously by many firms and there is a dedicated department to handle employee exits from the company.

Voluntary and involuntary exit

Voluntary is where an employee quits the company on his or her own accord

Involuntary separation or the act of asking the employee to leave by management

Components of employee separation process

The employee separation process starts from the time the employee gives notice to his or her employer about the intention to quit. This is usually called “putting in one’s papers” because in earlier times, an employee was required to submit a formal resignation letter, though in recent times, this is being done by email.

Once the employee gives notice, all the financial transactions and records of the employee are “frozen” by the HR department and the employee’s manager is tasked with the process of ensuring proper handover and closure of work tasks allotted to the employee.

Usually, the notice period ranges from a month to two to three months depending on the level at which the employee is working. Further, there has to be a well-defined handover plan drawn up by the employee’s manager that covers all aspects of closing out on the work that the employee is performing.

Participants’ employee separation process

The employee separation process occurs in two lines according to (MSG, 2016)

One involves the employee and the manager and is concerned with the handover of work and other tasks.

The other way  is by the separations team and deals with the employee benefits accruing as a result of separation as well as other benefits like PF (Provident Fund), Gratuity (If applicable) etc. The HR manager is needed at all steps of this process and in the final exit interview that is conducted to assess the reasons for the employee leaving the company and taking the employee’s views on work and the company in general as well as any “de-motivating” factors that might have caused the employee to resign.

Forms of employee separation

  • Retirement:

Retirement is the major cause of separation of employees from the organisation. It can be defined as the termination of service of an employee on reaching the age of superannuation. A superannuation is an organizational pension program created by a company for the benefit of its employees.

  • Resignation:

Resignation is termination of service by an employee by serving a notice, called ‘resignation’ on the employer. As per (YourArticleLibrary.com, 2015)

 A voluntary resignation is when an employee himself/herself decides to resign on the grounds of ill health, marriage, better job prospects in other organisations.

Involuntary or compulsory when the employer directs the employee to resign on grounds of duty and indiscipline or face the disciplinary action.

  • Layoff:

Layoff implies denial of employment to the employees for reasons beyond the control of employer. Breakdown of machinery, seasonal fluctuations in demand, shortage of power, raw materials

  • Retrenchment:

Retrenchment means permanent termination of an employee’s services for economic reasons. Retrenchment occurs on account of surplus staff, poor demand for products, general economic slowdown,

Best way managers to terminate employee’s contract

Termination of an employee contract of employment is very unpleasant thing to do by a business owners or by manager. Althoughit is unpleasant, it reaches appoint where it becomes necessary for the termination to take place. Currently, at the point of terminating the contract, workers are very careful with the termination. They may seek the advice of an attorney or a lawyer if they fell that the process has been done wrongly or incorrectly according to the law. This is because many employees currently have become more aware of their rights as provided by the law of their respective country of employment. This makes it very crucial for the human resource managers to use legal formalities to terminate an employee’s contract.

Besides the legal requirements, the human resource managers are concerned with the organization’s reputation. The way the exercise would be conducted, would highly contribute to the way the public perceive the firm. This may consequently in turn affects recruitment and selection process to be done by the organization in future. This is because people will not be willing to work in an organization that they are not certain of their future with regards to their employment.

Notice Requirement

Termination of employment is regulated under the Employment Act. A worker may be terminated after serving due notice or paying in lieu of notice. Length of notice period depends on the type of employment contract of the employee.

  • Notice period is not provided for a worker hired on daily basis; contract may be terminated at the end of working day without any prior notice
  • At least seven days’ notice for workers who are on probation.
  • Workers who get paid periodically for intervals shorter than one month e.g. on weekly or fortnightly basis, a notice of equivalent period and a week or 15 days may be served prior to contract termination
  • If workers are paid on a monthly basis or longer interval, a 28-day notice must be served before contract termination

Notice should be written in language easily comprehended by the worker, otherwise someone has to explain it to the worker, orally, in language that he/she could comprehend.Length of notice period may be set in employment contract by mutual consent of employer and worker, provided that the period is more than that is provided by the Act.

If an employer fails to give the termination notice, he/she must provide the wages and benefits that the employee would have earned during the notice period on the basis of average daily earnings over the past 12 months (provision of compensation in lieu or instead of notice). An employer is required to give reason of termination to the worker except in cases of summary dismissal and redundancy, but in all instances termination should be based in fair reasons (including termination by notice). A worker can still claim unfair termination and it is the duty of the employer to prove that the termination was fair and procedures were followed.

How the manager should terminate employees’ contract.

Employer should be prudent on how to carry out termination of employment contracts so as to avoid ruining the reputation of the company or the entity over termination of the employees’ employment contract.

A short statement showing that it is not in the best interest of the company to continue with the employment relationship with the employee will be better. Nothing more should be said to the employee as this can lead to more questions and also gives the employee a platform to determine whether the reasons were enough to terminate the contract. The employees’ direct supervisor and a member of the company’s management team or human resources department and/or an attorney present as well should be the one telling the employees about the termination of contracts.

It is highly advisable to terminate employment contracts on Fridays so as to give both parties time to cool down and lower their emotions. This also will also reduce physical violence. This is according to the first school of taught.

Another school of thought believes that terminations should be done early in the week in order to give the terminated employee an opportunity to start looking for a job, applying for unemployment benefits, and making other necessary arrangements as soon as possible, rather than stewing with frustration and anger and no outlet for positive action over the weekend.

A third school of thought believes that it should be done at the end of a pay period.

Furthermore, all outstanding wages, salaries, expenses, and unused vacation pay owed to the employee must usually be paid immediately upon termination.

Severance Pay should be given to the employee if the employee will seek to sew the company because of unfair termination of contract so as to reduce processes and also avoid ruining the company’s name.

The ways in which an organization retain its most valued employees.

It is important to note that a long-term commitment by employees requires effort from the management of the company and the employees. It is fully understandable that the employees need to put a lot of effort in his or her job they also need some of the encouragement and motivation to increase their commitments. Their commitment to the company will always keep them in the organization and thus not going to other organizations.

To retain employees in an organization the management should give responsibilities to the employees and trust them to do them. The management should show employees that they trust them by giving them responsibilities that allow them to grow as individuals. They should encourage them to gain new skills through carrying out such responsibilities. The company should also provide continuing education opportunities to the employees so as to improve their capabilities. In case of any vacancy the organization or the company should hire from within whenever possible and give generous promotions at appropriate times to the employees.

Employees want to know they are respected and appreciated in the organization. (K., Williams , & Scott, 2012) Many employees are built around the horrific things weary and stressed-out managers said or did. But if managers make it a priority to show outward respect for employees on a regular basis, it will lead to a strong and enduring workplace culture as well as positive experiences and memories that they will never forget. Respecting employees will always keep the employees stay and thus being retained in the organization.

The organization should always share with the employees what they get as revenues or profits that the company or the organization realises at any given time. Add part of your company’s realised profit or performance to the employees’ salary or wages so that they will also get part of their hard work and teamwork they can therefore get motivated through these kind of compensation. (K., Williams , & Scott, 2012) Through sharing the profits and benefits that the company gets as a result of employees dedication the company will align their interests with the company’s revenue and profit goals and will serve as an inherent incentive to stay with the company as it grows. By making the fixed cost of payroll inherently more variable under differing business conditions, you can make your company more resilient and agile, while also treating your employees exceptionally well. The company can ensure that they increase the employees’ salary in case of increase in the profit or returns by the company.

The rewards you give your employees as a company should reflect on the employees emotional needs and should go beyond their monetary compensation. Recognition in front of the company for a well done job, company and department parties, service projects, lunches with the boss, logo clothing, and handwritten notes can all contribute to the positive culture of the company and can be good morale builders as well. These kinds of rewards can make the employee comfortable in an organization and thus will not move to another company or the organization.

The company or the management of the company should be generous with time off given to employees. Despite the hard economy, provide sufficient time for sick days by ensuring that the employee gets a sick leave, paid family vacations for the executive and if possible to the employees too, maternity leave and paternity leave. Pacing workflow can be highly beneficial to enduring employee relationships since it creates a good relationship. You should expect and even demand high-quality performance, but it is unreasonable to expect a continual level of pressure at 100 percent. Employees should be given a leave or a day off for them to relax and gain more energy for the job. Allow employees the chance to catch their breath from one assignment by giving for example team buildings activities or mini break periods over the course of the day.

 Costs and benefits associated with turnover

Turnover is a measurement of how long employees stay in a company and how often they are being replaced. At any given point an employee leaves an organization (company), for any reason, they are called separation.

There are various costs associated with having turnovers. To determine this, HR managers are to consider some factors of losing an employee. According to (Lucas, 2016)s, the first cost is loweredproductivity. The person who left was doing something, right? And who is doing that job now that the position is vacant? No one? That’s lost productivity right there. What if you just farm out the tasks to other people? Chances are, the most important tasks will get done, but other things will fall by the wayside.

Second cost is Overworked remaining staff. Can you measure this in dollars? If your employees are exempt, their pay checks remain the same. This becomes a cost in that as they get stretched thin, their quality of work goes down as does their satisfaction and engagement. Which means that they are more and more likely to start looking for a new job and leave. And the longer they stay in their overworked roles, the harder it will be for you to regain their lost knowledge forms another cost factor. A ton of people can do what your former employee did, but they don’t have the specific knowledge she had. It’s not just about putting numbers in a spreadsheet, writing code, or selling a product. It’s about knowing the people, the traditions, the location of relevant information, what the boss likes and a million other things that come from working for a company for a long period of time. All that goes away when someone quits and sometimes it’s more than just general company knowledge.

Interviewing costs also are associated with employee turnover. If you have to pay travel expenses, that’s costly. But if all your candidates are local, you still have to take the time to go through resumes, talk with numerous people, do formal interviews (which take an inordinate amount of time), talk with colleagues, and figure out who is the best employee.

What do all these costs add up to? Well how much? Estimates run as high as 150 percent of annual salary. Much less for lower level positions, but still significant enough to make retention a high priority for your business.

Employee’s turnover is mostly perceived to have only negative effects to an organization. According to (Hearst Newspaer, 2016), this is not the case. There are some benefits (advantages) that accrue to the organization due to employee turnover. The first advantage is Talent Infusion. Employees who leave of their own volition as well as employees who leave due to involuntary discharge aren’t always high performers. Employees with subpar performance drain the company of resources and money. These turnover scenarios create opportunities for an employer to recruit new talent with new ideas and emerging skills.

Training costs. Paid training costs are obvious. If you have to pay $5,000 for a seminar to teach your new employee your complex internal computer systems, that’s a cost noted on a spreadsheet. But, when there are no training classes to attend, there are still costs. Someone has to sit there and show him what to do. Someone has to double check work until the employee has proven himself. And that all takes the “trainer” away from her regular job. Which means you’re paying two people to do one job. Costly.

Secondly there is Efficiency. Introducing talent also leads to updated work processes with technology-driven solutions. New employees bring a fresh perspective to the workplace as well as new ways of operating the business. Many of their solutions improve efficiency and, ultimately, profitability. Morale. Improved employee morale is another advantage of turnover. Disengaged workers sap the workplace of enthusiasm, energy and productivity. When employees who are performing at marginal levels leave the organization, it inspires remaining workers and returns the workplace to a team-oriented work environment where everyone is focused, driven and interested in doing a good job. The strain placed on an organization by managing employees whose presence affects the entire workforce is lifted when those employees are separated from the company.

Cost Savings When long-term employees leave, the company is no longer in debt for high wages tenured employees earn. Employers can reconfigure their compensation practices and set new starting salaries for less experienced workers. The cost to maintain long-term employees is also expensive where benefits are concerned. Companies that raise their retirement savings contributions for tenured employees start over fresh at lower employer contribution rates.

Lower Benefit Rates. Insurers base their premiums on age. The older the insured, the more costly it is to insure them due to age-related conditions and diseases. Seasoned employees are generally older workers for whom the employer absorbs the cost of health care premiums. When these employees leave the organization, employer benefits costs may drop significantly.

In conclusion it doesn’t mean you shouldn’t fire problem employees. You should–because they aren’t being productive and they encourage your good employees to quit. But, you should first try to counsel and coach and correct. And you should consider your pay scales for your good employees and give raises and bonuses when appropriate because it will cost you more to lose that good employee.

Turnover is expensive. Sometimes it cannot be avoided, but when it can, you should avoid it by doing the right things for your employees.

 

 

References

K., D., Williams , & Scott, M. M. (2012, November 12). Five Ways to Retain Employees Forever. Retrieved from Harverd Business Review: https://hbr.org/2012/11/five-ways-to-retain-employees/

MSG. (2016). Management Study Quide. Retrieve June 17, 2016 from:http://www.managementstudyguide.com/employee-seperation-process.htm

YourArticleLibrary.com. (2015). Retrieved from Top 5 Forms of Employee Separation: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/hrm/top-5-forms-of-employee-separation/35326/

 

Hearst Newspaer. (2016). Retrieved from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-turnover-11194.html

Lucas, S. (2016, june 17). Inc. Retrieved from how much employee turn over cost: http://www.inc.com/justin-bariso/steph-currys-wife-went-off-last-night-and-taught-us-all-a-lesson-in-emotional-in.html

Green N, Ryan K,2 & Levy M. The Correct Way to Terminate an Employee. Retrieved 20th

June 20, 2016 from: The Correct Way to Terminate an Employee.

Africapay.org/Kenya. Notice and Severance. Retrieved 20th June 2016 from:

http://www.africapay.org/kenya/home/labour-laws/employment-security/notice-and-severance