Throughout every history of civilization, every tribe and culture had its form of music. The tradition of music has gone through one generation to another. However, in those ancient years, it was difficult to know and understand what music sounded.   The founders of music instilled music in their dramas.  They did not sing in chorus but they chanted singsong style. They had a simple harp-like instrument. It is for this reason that I concur that “It is difficult to devote much attention to music that no one is sure how it sounds.” One fact is that the ancient style of music will find it difficult to find a modern audience. A non-metrical rhythm; moron graphic texture accompanied with restrained mood cannot make-up music. It merely becomes a chant not worth attention. If one understands music, he would want to listen to its every element and wallow in it. It is different from understanding the attributes of a song.

For one to understand Western music, it is helpful to divide it into stylistic periods. It is important because it helps a listener understand the context of the music thus able to connect what he is listening to and what he knows and understand. Unfortunately, there is no any other pedagogical approach because, over the historical period, almost every civilization has used the music element in the same way. However, this type of approach exposes the regular and irregularity of the periodic musical patterns. The advantages of this stylistic approach are that a listener can understand the difference, characteristics, and patterns of the musical melodies of every stylistic period, the type of harmony, texture regarding how the styles were performed. It clues the listener on the style of music, what to listen to and expect. For example, one cannot expect a solo singer from a music composed before 1600.


Hoffer, Charles. Music Listening Today, 6th ed. MA: Schirmer Cengage Learning, 2016



Jackson Pollock, Number 1, 1948 is an artwork where Pollock used the drip or pouring technique. He poured ropes of paints across the canvas surface creating webs of strings and enamel skeins. The image looks dense on the canvas. Their detail resemblesfiligree thus portraying some delicacy. His work gave birth to abstract expressionism. It meant that an artist should be inspired by what is within his mind other than external influence. This principle has shaped the modern art and coined the notion that art is majorly an event.

Robert Rauschenberg, White Paintings, 1951.The most recognized art work of Rauschenberg is that which he combined painting and sculpturing to create a single three dimensional art work. He termed his work as the combine. His art work was made from traditional materials and other disintegrated pieces of our daily lives.This was a symbol indicating a major shift from the outside world within the art community. The items in his artwork portrayed himself for the items used are those that he owned and used daily. He avoided borrowing from his previous generation.

Robert Morris, Mirrored Cubes, 1965.Morris applied his theory of minimalism in his artwork. Minimalism was used to describe sculptures and paintings that were embedded on simplicity in both content and form.It also tended to remove an artist’s personal expressivity from the artwork.This was to allow the viewer‘s experience towards the work, to be that which was free from distractions by theme, composition and other aspects. He exploited space in creating a relationship between the art object and viewer.  However, Fried criticizes this principle. He states that the viewer only creates a relationship with an object because it is within the viewer’s space,(Fried, 1967).


Death penalty

Death penalty is an execution sentence passed on accused for committing capital crime.  The death sentence is practiced by many countries across the world. Some of the countries mostly known for death penaltiesare China and Iraq. In America, only thirty one states apply the law whereas nineteen of the States have abolished the same law. The death penalty as a way of crime punishment traces back from the ancient period. It wasa way of curbing serious crimes and createsorder.

Classical sociologists in their deterrent theory explain that death penalty acted as a deterrent to crime. In this theory of deterrent and capital punishment, it states that individuals or crimes find pleasurein committing a crime. That they, i.e. criminals weigh the profitability or advantages of committing a crime visa –vie the costs involved.Therefore, for these criminals to be punished, then the pain of punishment was to outweigh the benefit gained by the criminal for committing a crime.This theory entirely explains the primary purpose of a capital sentence such as death sentence. In my view, the every degree of crime must be met with a higher degree of punishment so that the crime is not repeated.  This idea of punishment is incoherent with the principle of laws. In that, laws create fear or act as deterrentforce withinpeople in such a way that they don’t commit crime for fear of being punished by the laws.

 Stake Holders of the Death Penalty. However, the ever dragging debate and the rising voices opposed and in support to death sentence is a manifest of how death penalty has always ignited divided opinions. It’s a matter that cuts across states.The primary sate holders in this case are the defendants, law practitioners and the state. Other stake holders include the general public, civil organizations such as Amnesty International, governing institutions e.g. United Nations, religious groups, criminologists, researchers and the general public.

In regard to Amnesty International, which advocated for the rights of the victims i.e. defendants of death sentence, it argues that such punishment is against human rights. The organization advocatingfor abolition of death sentence is in line with the 1997/12 of 3 April 1997, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resolutions. The resolutions stated that abolition of capital sentence is desirable and is in respect to the rights of life.(Prokosch, 1998).Amnesty International in measuring the cruelty of death sentence reiterates that the sentence does not only contravene the standards of humane rights to life but also the rights that prohibit individuals from abuse. Such abuse includes both physical and mental torture that the victim is subjected to. That is, threatening to kill a prisoner is a mental torture while the actual execution is the physical torture. (Prokosch, 1998). Also, the torture extends beyond the victims and subsequently to the family and those in charge of executing the sentence.

Researchers of various fields related to criminology and the law are also opposed tothis law. There first argument has been to analyze the deterrent theory. They suggest that, the theory does not reflect the circumstances in which crime is committed. The theory only concludes that the offenders are aware of the law and that they make decisions based on their passion. (Natalie, 2015)

Such arguments contravene the conditions that inhibit capital offences i.e. murder to which the death penalty applies. They deduce that most murders are emotionally charged and that they happen spontaneously. (William. C, 1990).In his empirical study of the level of crime in relation to where death penalty was practiced William Bailey found that there was a relatively increase of capital crimes such as homicides in these regions.

In rejoinder to voice their opposition to death penalties, various civil societies have put pressure on their governments to abolish these laws. An example of these society groups is the American Civil Liberty Union. (ACLU). Its major concerns are that the death penalty is applied unfairly depending on one’s race, financial strength of defendants to higher quality lawyers and the area in which the crimes took place. The civil organization is also concerned by the number of innocent people that may have been sentenced to death. These concerns have been triggered by various statistics which indicate that over 140 defendants have been pardon from death rows after they were found innocent. Moreover, statistics show that in every ten individuals that are executed, one person is exonerated. (American Civil Liberty Union)

An example of such circumstances is the Gary Graham case where after ten years of capital conviction, new evidence found him innocent. This unfolding event fanned interest from the public regarding the legal system and innocence of the defendants it is supposed to judge.  Over the years there has been increasing percentage of the public rising up to oppose the capital system.

In regard these arguments, the viability of death penalty to deter capital crime is still a raging debate. However it is imperative to note that degree of crimes defer, so is the degree of punishment for each one them.



Natalie B. (2015). Difference Theory of Punishment: Definition and Effect on

William C. (1989) Murder, Capital Punishment, and Deterrence: A Review of the Evidenceand an

Examination of Police Killings

Eric P. (1998). Human rights V. The Death Penalty: Abolition and Restriction in Law and Practice.

Amnesty International

President FDR

Since President FDR is from the Democratic Party and whose ideals are different from those of the republicans, the republicans are of the view that all policies developed by FDR are meant to please his party. FDR introduced the new deal and which was meant to cushion the nation from the adverse effects of the great depression. However, the new deal had some adverse effects like, increased taxes, increase in unemployment levels, poverty levels and stagnating economy(Thornton, 2010). Moreover, the new deal made it harder for the public to clear their mortgages and it raised worries, concerns and loss of confidence in the government since it mismanaged the economy.

With regards to unemployment, the unemployment levels declined from 26% to 15% towards the end of 1937. Moreover, the new deal assisted the public in terms of, financing farm and home mortgagesWith regards to mismanagement of the economy, the New Deal recorded some achievementin that schools, clinics and roads where constructed and which was benefitted the nation.Moreover, the construction works on dams and roads aided the future development of industries(Leuchtenburg, 2013).The New Deal restored confidence in America since without the New Deal, might have crumbled and will be in a worsecircumstance than before. The New Deal improved the conditions of factory life for the better via acts like Wagner Act.

From the above, the one that comes closer to the truth relates to the case of the Republicans. This is so, since the demerits of the New deal outweigh its merits. As a result, the tribulations faced by faced by the public still persisted. Despite numerous criticism, FDR was viewed as afather figure because he brought America of Depression. As a result, his popularity was high. Moreover, he enacted several reforms which were intended to ensure the success of America. The repeal of Prohibition was attributed to be among the main reason for FDR’s popularity. The success of repeal provided him with significant amount of political capital which assisted in shielding all the silly and dysfunctional programs of the New Deal (Thornton, 2010).

Q 2

The New Deal was a sequence of federal initiatives/agendaspublic work projectsfinancial rectifications and regulationssanctioned in America during the 1930s and which was occasioned by the Great Depression(Leuchtenburg, 2013). The new deal was meant to cushion Americans against the great depression, however it went contrary to its intended aims/objectives.

The weakness and therecklessness of the New Deal involved it going against US tradition of Laize fairre and which meant that the government interfered with the economy .Certain individuals madecomparisonof the new deal and socialism, since certain aspects of the new was similar to the work of Hitler. The new deal failed to tackle the economy, the only way in which the economy could have improved wasat the end ofWorld War 2. The New deal made Americans to pay more taxes so as to ensure the success of the deal but which was resented by the public(Leuchtenburg, 2013). The new deal was discriminatory against African Americans, Immigrants and woman since the available jobs where only secured for the white men. Lastly, the deal failed to tackle unemployment issues and which was when US was joining the war.

The boldness of the vision of the New Deal and the sweep of its ultimate achievement was based on the fact that schools, clinics and roads where constructed and which was benefitted the nation. The new deal a lot of people who were caught in the depression in US history, through providing them with employment opportunities, financing farm and home mortgages. As a result, it led todecline in the unemployment from 26% to 15% towards the end of 1937. The new deal assisted farmers in that Roosevelt encouraged farmers to produce goods and which meant they canraise the prices of their goods. The New Deal also led to improvedoutcomes in the long run. Through advancing the interests of the farmers and the workers, the new deal created a wider basis of consuming power hence creating a firm foundation for industrial prosperity. The new deal also recreated a feeling of confidence among the American citizens that government based in Washington was their government and that it could be used to fight the enemies who are a threat to the peace and stability of nation both from within and outside the nation.

From my own perspective, I believe that deal was weak and reckless because, Roosevelt failed to recognize that the Great Depression was mainly brought about by the government itself. The New Deal was unsuccessful since the NRA, through fixing prices resulted to damaging the businesses of Americans(Daniel, 2016). The traditional system of free market which involvedcompanies competing and innovating to at different price and quality to choosy consumers was overthrown through the interference by the government through fixing prices.Competition is good and healthy for any successful economy since it makes it possible for the various sector within the economy to innovate and maintain prices at minimum levels for the end customers. Without competition, there will not be any new and cheaper products in the market.

As a result, the consumers had access high qualitygoods and which were also very cheap time. However the NRA held the belief that the industry was stagnating and didn’t change, and hence the need to fix the prices. Allowing themarket to establish/set prices and appears to be more sensible than allowing the government to fix the prices. Moreover, the NRA wrote more than 500 codes into law and which resulted to increasedbureaucracy (Daniel, 2016). Through fixing prices, the smaller organizations would not be in a position to compete favorably with other huge firms.

TheNew Deal was also weak since the AAA, via interfering with supply and demand, adversely affected farming and which affected the entire economy. The government reduced the pricesof wheat and cotton hence the farmers of wheat and cotton expanded their businesses and other farmers shifted to those “guaranteed” crops.This in turn led to overproduction of wheat and cotton, and which was sold by the government at a loss (Ruggiero, 2015). Due to this shift to wheat and cotton production, America failed to produce other agricultural products hence in the 1930s it became a huge food-nation.

It can be concluded that the great depression was as a result of the government’s interference with how the market operates through fixing the prices. Though the new deal was meant to cushion the economy from adverse effects of depression, it generally was a failure.


At the start of theGreat Depression, people began losing their jobs since firmsbegan going bankrupt. Moreover, a lot of people started to sell their houses in a panic stricken attempt to pay back loans; other people were forced to since they were not able to pay their mortgages. As time went by, vagrant began to construct shanty towns as a type of shelter. These shelters were named ‘Hoovervilles,’ after President Herbert Hoover, who is believed to be the main causefor their misery/great depression.

Hoover is blamed for the great depression because his responses to the ill-impacts of the Depression were not comprehensive enough(Ruggiero, 2015). For far too long,Hoover relied/implemented the laissez-faire since he held the notion that the economy would at some correct itself. This “hands off” kind of strategy did not solve the dramatic loss of confidence in the entire economy. Moreover, in a mistaken effort to stabilize the Federal Budget, Hoover approved into law the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act that resulted to a significant slump in globe trade; plusgiving the go ahead to tax increase on estates, businesses, and checks(Ruggiero, 2015).

Various Economists, scholars and historians are part of the people who criticized president Hoover owing to his weak and poor policies which led to the great depression. Historians and economist hold the belief that President Hoover underestimated the degree of the Great Depression. Besides this, the public also constitute the growing list of critics of president Hoover hence the reason they named their shelters Hoovervilles, as a remembrance of the mess Hoover brought to them.

FDR received a lot of criticism from conservatives and liberals. The new deal was viewed by the conservatives and liberals as which offered too much control to the government. They viewed that the Securities Act ad Glass-steagall Act was giving the state a lot of control and regulation of the stock market and the banking sector.The conservatives and liberals believed that the government was spending a lot of money on job creation programs.The conservatives never liked the idea that the debt of the nation was growing. The Liberals viewed that FDR was not doing enough and they desired to see him doing more in terms of creating more jobs and helping the needy.

FDR reacted to criticism by theconservatives and the Liberals through singing into law the Works progress Administration, the national industrial recovery Act, Wagner Act and the social security program. This programs were meant to help the poor, the needy and create job opportunities for the public. The programs also ensured that there was prudency in the manner in which taxes were used.

Although US had norecord of massive social upheaval against the state, hunger has athreatening means of firing up passions in the society. As bread riots and shantytowns expanded, number, people startedseeking for options to status quo(Ruggiero, 2015). Demonstrations in the country’s capital was common, as Americans began to befed up with President Hoover’s perceived inaction. The riot which drew national attention was the bonus army march of 1932. This is significant to my story in that it goes on to show that poor management of the economy affects the society  and once they are fed up, they tend to resist against the state.

Works cited

Daniel, Patrick. Why did the New Deal fail? 14 April 2016. 10 Feb 2018.

Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940. , 2013. Print.

Thornton, Mark. The Real Reason for FDR’s Popularity. 2010. 10 Feb 2108.

Ruggiero, Adriane. The Great Depression. New York: Benchmark Books, 2015. Print.




Conflict entails rivalry by groups or people over incompatible objectives, scarce resources, or the sources of power required to gain them. This rivalry is also determined by one’s perception of aims, resources, and power, and such perceptions canvary significantly among people. One determinant when it comes to perception is culture, the socially acquired, shared and learned ways of living owned by individuals owing to their membership to a certain social group. Conflict might occur across cultural boundaries hence is also occurring across intellectual and perceptual boundaries, and is more so prone to problems of intercultural miscommunication and misunderstanding.

These problems increases the conflict, irrespective of what the root causes are. In this sense culture is a crucial aspectvarious sorts of conflicts which initiallymight seems to be entirely about material resources/negotiable interests. This difference also affect how global business is done. In cross-border business, business people step into a different cultural environments which are characterized by foreign/alien languages and distinct value systems, beliefs, and behaviors. One tends to come across clients and business partners who exhibit various lifestyles, norms, and consumption behavior. These differences influences/affects every aspect of international business. Cross-cultural risk comes about routinely in global business due to diverse cultural heritage. This paper will focus on culture and cross-cultural risks and culture’s effect on international business. It will also give an example of how cultural values have been affected by international business in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Culture and cross-cultural risks

Executivesin the 21st century multicultural global business community usually come face to face with cultural variations and which mayinfluence the success or the failure of the firm. Two leading researches on cross-cultural management have been carried out by Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars. Some of the cross cultural risks include;

Efficient communication is crucial to the success of any firm, but it’s more so essential when there is a real risk ones message getting “lost in translation.”In most global firms, English is usually the de facto language of business. But more than just the language one speaks, how one conveys their message is vital (Romanova, 2008). A case in point, the Finns prefer directness and brevity, professionals from India are usually indirect and nuanced when it comes to their communication. Failing to understand the communication style of a different culture may result to a communication breakdown/risks since either of the two might be going against each other’s societal norms and beliefs.

The other cross cultural risk relates to workplace etiquette. The idea of punctuality might differ between more so when it comes to international business environment. Notions of what entails being “on time” might lead to misunderstanding or negative cultural perceptions. A case in point, whereas an American can arrive for a meeting a few minutes early, an Italian or even a Mexican can arrive several minutes or more after the scheduled start-time & they might still be regarded to be “on time”. This varying perception about punctuality poses some risks in that it might lead to conflicts and frustrations.

        Organizational hierarchy and attitudes towards management roles does vary among cultures. For example, a nation like Japan, which historicallycherishes social hierarchy, relative status, and respect for authority, brings style within the workplace. This hierarchy assists in definingduties and responsibilities within the company(Romanova, 2008). This refer to also that those in senior positions are accorded respect and requireparticular levels of formality and deference from junior staffs. However, within the Scandinavian nations like Norway, it puts a lot of emphasize of societal equality hence they have a relatively flat organizational hierarchy(Romanova, 2008). In turn, this might include informal communication and an emphasis on cooperation across the company.Someof the cross cultural issues that might be grouped into the following dimensions and which were coined by Geert Hofstede.

Power distance the degree to which the less powerful members of organization and institution accept and expect that power is not distributedequally. The primary issue involved is the extent of people inequality which underlies the functioning of everycommunity.

Uncertainty avoidance entail the degreeto which a culture programs people to feel uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured circumstances. Unstructured circumstances are not known and are surprising. The primary issue involved is the extent to which the communityattempts to regulate the uncontrollable.

Individualism, versus its opposite, collectivism, the extent to which people are expected to care for themselves or be integrated into groups/families. Positioning itself between these poles is a primary issues all communities face.

Masculinity versus its opposite, femininity, entails distribution of emotional roles between the sexes, which is another crucial issuesin the community. This variationis against “tough” masculine and “tender” communities. The duality of the sexes is a crucial fact with which various communities cope in various ways(Romanova, 2008).

Long-term versus short-term orientation entails the extent to which a culture programs its members to accept post ponding gratification of their material, and emotional requirements.

Culture’s effect on international business

Top executives and CEOs in Saudi Arabia are faced with an enormous task/challenge when it comes to their quest to enhance the performance of companies. The greatest issuerelates tocultural issues and work practices which limitsthe performance levels of the staffs when compared totheir counterparts in the Western global firms (Idris, 2007). Maintaining and increasing a broad base of Saudi technical and skilled employees is a challengeowing to the fact that the Saudis are more inspired by status and position. Majority of the young Saudis have been brought up in luxury, seeing their parents receiving high incomes, high-status positions (Bell, 2005). One study that was carried out back in 1986 discovered that Saudi labor ranked the when it comes todue to abundance of job opportunities. Besides this, the Saudi employeesare not motivated to work in lowly-ranked.A recent research established thata quarter of Saudi staffs who are working in the private sector don’t regularly report to work, hence leading to high employee turnover rate.

Based on the findings by Beer et al. (1985), supervisors in many rarely provideaccurate and honest performance appraisalssince they do not want to adversely affect the self-esteem of the staff (Beer et al., 1985). In Saudi Arabia, honest feedback when it comes to performance can be perceived by the staffs as unkind and hostile. Within the Arab culture, it’s customary to offer feedback via an intermediary so as to minimize any conflictsor sending the wrong message. This is aggravated when the performance of the Saudi staffs is related to their expatriate counterparts, comparisons which are at onceviewed as favoring the foreigners and not promoting Saudization, a word coined for nationalizing the jobs.

The fact that Saudi Arabia’s collective culture appreciate group work, the pay-for-performance system whichidentifiesstaffs is looked down upon when management attempts to ignore it via writing comforting statements on the appraisal documents to compensate for minimal salary increases for poor performers. The existing culture favors life employment, hence managers are prohibited from sacking poor performing employees and replacing them with the high performing staffs. Unless the difference in compensation of the high performers and low performers is great, companies risk demotivating the high performers while encouraging the low performers to remain unproductive (Beer et al., 1985).

Variations when it comes to communication styles might oftenly be a cultural challenge and as a result, international companies doing business in Saudi Arabia and who do not have sufficient knowledge/can often find themselves feeling confused and frustrated. The communication style used in Saudi Arabia in most cases tends to be quite indirect and high context. In short, this refers to that communication styles in Saudi Arabia tends to depend more heavily on body language and other non-verbal signals like the tone of voice and the use of silence. When doing business in Saudi Arabia, it’s prudent for one to remember that information is hardly explicitly stated, silence is oftenly used for scrutiny and a direct “no” is rarely used. This is contrary to the communication style used in the western style whereby communication is direct to the point. In the western nation, they tell it like it easy regardless of if ones feelings might be hurt in the process(Idris, 2007). The variation might affect international business in that there would be a lot of frustrations and misunderstandings since on one hand one is expecting a more direct approach while on the hand, one might be communicated to using an indirect approach (body language).

Despite the fact that the prevailing circumstance is different from the 80s and job opportunities are not numerous, effect on the culture of the accumulated wealth in the 70s still persists, and about everylike to work in managerial positions. Labor-kind jobs are viewed to be unattractive and not honorable (Idris, 2007). Such situations is firmly rooted to the degree that families and the government guards and support those who pass up the socially unaccepted jobs.

Technical Saudi professionals are forced to look for managerial positions as most firms’ systems aren’t structured to support interesting and rewarding technical and labor career paths. The kingdom is significantly dependent on foreign labor. As a result of this, it has hindered the development of a skilled workforce to such an extent that the private sector isn’t in a position totake in new Saudi entrants and are unable to give attractive salaries (Al-Kibsi et al., 2007).

Saudi Arabia has a lot of expatriates working there and who come from different parts of the world. Among them are women. Saudi Arabia is regarded to be a male dominant nation, hence western female might find it challengingto make a decision to move towards Saudi Arabia. Females aren’t allowed to drive hence it would be problematic for western freedom lover lady. Moreover, Saudi woman are required to cover themselves using an abaya (Salman, 2016). Muslim women are required to put onan abaya and their face. For the non-Muslims women,an abaya is a must but one is allowed not to cover their face. Saudi Arabia has different shopping malls, restaurants, and banks for females but no gyms, cinemas or concerts for women in Saudi Arabia. Adjusting from a free culture to a restricted culture can be quite challenging for women expatriates wishing to work in Saudi Arabia.

Example from Saudi Arabia where cultural values have been affected by international business.

As earlier noted, Saudi Arabia is a male dominated nation and women were not allowed to drive. However, the leader of Saudi Arabia, King Salman has given a special decree which grants women permission to drive. This move was meant to ease restrictions on women and which had a significant effect for the Saudi economy and women’s capacity to work. This change was based on the fact that the laws prohibited women from driving was demeaning to women and it hindered them from been actively involved in their work. Moreover, the nation was trying to keep up with what other nations in terms of the rights of women and ensure their active participation in nation building. According to bin Salman, “We are attempting to increase the number of women participation in the workforce,” (Gaouette and Labott, 2017). He went on to add that so as to change women’s participation in the labor force, they need to be allowed to drive to work. He concluded by saying that the nation needs them (women) to move forward, so that they can help to improve the economy.



Al-Kibsi, G, Benkert, C., and Schubert, J. (2007). Getting labor policy to work in the        Gulf.    The McKinney Quarterly, 19-29. , from

Beer, M., Spector, B., Lawrence, P., Mills, D., and Walton, R. (1985). Human resource    management: A general manager’s perspective. New York: The Free Press.

Idris, Abdallah M. (2007). “Cultural barriers to improved organizational performance in Saudi      Arabia.” SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of   Management. Retrieved February 05, 2018 from High Beam      Research:

Nicole Gaouette and Elise Labott. (2017). Saudi Arabia to let women drive at last. Retrieved from CNN:

Romanova, F. T. (2008). Cross Cultutraldifferencesandtheir implications for Retrieved from The George Washington University:


Salman, Y. a. (2016). Female Expatriates and Cross Cultural Adjustment: A Study of Saudi         Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol 23 No 2.



The proliferation of networked devices, Internet services, and simulations has led to huge volumes of data being produced. Cloud computing has been defined as a computing paradigm,wherebyseveral systems are linked together in private or public networks,to offer dynamically scalable infrastructure for applications, data and storage of files (Abadi, 2012, p, 9). With the discovery of this technology,the expenses of computation, application hosting, contentstorage and delivery has been minimized. Cloud computing serves as a proven delivery model, with many firms noticing its outstanding agility and efficiency benefits. This paper will focus on the whole aspect of cloud computing.

Benefits of Cloud Computing

Flexibility-Users/businesses are able to scale up their services so that they can fit well/meet their needs, customize applications and access cloud services from everywhere and anywhere provided that they are connected to the internet.

Security-a cloud host’s all-time job entails monitoring security, which is significantly efficient when compared to conventional in-house system, where firms divide their efforts between a several IT issues, with security being one of them.The key to this enhanced security is the encryption of data being transmitted over networks and stored in databases.Through using encryption, information cannot be accessed by hackers or unauthorized people.

Cheaper-Once you’re on the cloud, easy access to your company’s data will save time and money in project start-ups.Majority of the cloud computing services are pay-as-you-go. About 50% of all CIOs and IT leaders surveyed by Bitglass indicated cost savings in 2015 after using cloud-based applications (Velte, Toby and Velte, 2010, p, 137).

Quality control- In a cloud-based system, every document are kept/stored in a single location and in a uniform format. With all staff accessing the similar information, firms are able to maintain consistency in data, minimize human error, and have a clear record of revisions or updates.

Drawbacks ofCloud Computing

Need for Reliable Internet Service-As more mission-critical work is carried out via theweb, firms will require more bandwidth and fewer, if any, failures in Internet connectivity (Abadi, 2012, p, 9). In the even consistent Internet access, connection speed/bandwidth are challengesin one’s firm, cloud solutions might not be necessary for the firm/individuals at this time

Security concerns– cloud data can be accessible from anywhere via the weband which means that if a data breachhappensthrough hacking, a disgruntled staffs, or careless username and password security, your firm’s datamight be compromised.

Cloud Vendors Going out of Business-Cloud computing is a fast changing field, and there is thedanger that cloud vendors may go out of business or quickly change their service(Velte, Toby and Velte, 2010, p, 141).

When should a firm purchase its IT services from the Cloud?

The right time that firms can purchase its IT services from cloud is when the firm has grown in size, it has a huge customer base and employee base. This would ensure that the firm is able to enhance its service delivery and ensure it becomes more flexible. Moreover, as a firm grows in size, it becomes more prone to hacking hence using cloud computing would ensure this risk is kept at bay.

Implication for IT oversight and the firm’s governance of those systems

Governance of IT entails the creation of a structure for aligning business strategy with IT strategy and offers means for measuring the performance and benefits of IT.  A good IT governance structureestablishes a clear and consistent direction with standards for people, process and technology to follow(Abadi, 2012, p, 12).Moreover, governance is at the center of effective management of the IT function to guarantee that companiesare realizing maximum value from their investments in information technology.

The implication that IT has on the governance and oversight of these systems is that: There will need to be an assurance that IT assets (system and processes among others) are executed and used based on the agreed-upon policies and procedures.It also demands that these assets are properly regulated and maintained and also ensure that the assets are offering value to the company (supporting the company’s strategy and business objectives) (Velte, Toby and Velte, 2010, p, 145). IT governance and oversight therefore entails the techniques and policies which measures and controls how systems are managed and whether they achieving the set objectives of the company.

Open source environment and strategic advantage gained over the competition

Open source software is software that has a source code which anyone may inspect, alter, and improve.Open source software has a history of reputation of being secure when compared to closed source.Open source code lets users judge how secure a program is unlike closed software whereby users are not able to judge or alter how the program operates (Broberg, Rajkumar Buyya, Zahir Tari,2011, p, 1013).Open source software’smeans there are more sets of eyes to note security holes and fix them. Open source ensures that patching of software is done a little bit faster hence, there is no need to contact the vendor about a bug. By been able to inspect, alter, and make improvement offers strategic gain over the competition in that one is able to ensure security of their data. The last strategic advantage through using open source relates to the fact that one is able to solve their enterprise issues while effectively sharing some of the maintenance expenses. One crucial merit of open source revolves around the involvement of the community. Instead of writing an application and having to sustain it, one is able to share maintenance cost and sustaining applications among several parties.

In conclusion, cloud computing has brought with numerous benefits and drawbacks to firms. The implication IT governance and oversight on cloud computing relates to the techniques and policies that measures and controls how systems are managed and whether they achieving the set objectives of the company.



Anthony T. Velte, Toby J. Velte, (2010). Robert Elsenpeter, Cloud Computing: A Practical          Approach. McGraw Hill Publications, pp 135 –144.

Daniel J. Abadi, (2012). Data Management in the Cloud: Limitations and Opportunities,

IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, Volume 32, 3-12

James Broberg, Rajkumar Buyya, Zahir Tari, (2011) MetaCDN: Harnessing „Storage Clouds‟      for high Performance content delivery, Journal of Network and Computer Applications,     1012–1022,





Assignment Brief: ASSIGNMENT 1 OF 1



Deoxygenated blood


Oxygenated blood
Deoxygenated blood
Pulmonary Valve
Right atrium
Pulmonary vein
Pulmonary artery
Right ventricle
Aortic valve
Left ventricle



Task 1 of 6 (1.1 & 1.2)


. Provide more detail for the structures above marked with a star.


Pulmonary Valve- it is an opening that makes it possible for the blood flow down to the right ventricle


Right ventricle- it pumps the blood up via the pulmonary valve and via the pulmonary artery to the lungs


Right atrium- Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium via inferior and superior vena cava. It then pumps this deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary veins around the lungs


Left ventricle- it receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium through the mitral valve and pumps via the aorta through the aortic valve, into the systemic circulation


Aorta- it distributes oxygenated blood to the rest of the body via systemic circulation.
Pulmonary vein- responsible transporting oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart


Pulmonary Artery- it carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs (Furst, 2010)


Vena cava- it is a large vein which transports de-oxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart.
Aortic valve- Closes the lower left which holds the oxygen-rich blood prior to it been pumped out to the body. It opens to make it possible for blood to leave the heart.



Superior Vena cava– it is a huge trunk which return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart. Its diameter is (24 mm). It is above the heart, and forms a convergence of the left and right brachiocephalic veins, that contains blood from the head and the arms. It is located slightly off-centre, toward the right side of the body. which transports de-oxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart

Aorta– it is the primary artery in the human body it originates from the left ventricle of the heart and extends downwards to the abdomen, where it splits into tiny arteries (the common iliac arteries) (Abramson, & Dobrin, 2104). The supplies oxygenated blood to the rest of the body via systemic circulation. It is a tube of about foot long and slightly over an inch in diameter

Pulmonary Artery– it transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. The blood here passes via capillaries next to the alveoli and gets oxygenated as part of the process of respiration. The primary pulmonary artery divides into the right and the left pulmonary artery. The left pulmonary artery is shorter and smaller when compared to the right. The right and left pulmonary arteries have branches which correspond to the lung lobes,

Pulmonary vein– it’s responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart. … Human beings have four pulmonary veins, two from each lung. Beneath the lung, the right superior pulmonary vein lies above and a little below the pulmonary artery; the inferior is located beneath the lung hilum. The right main pulmonary veins (has oxygenated blood) pass behind the right atrium and superior vena cava; the left in front of the descending thoracic aorta (Elwell MR, Mahler, 1999).



Task 2 of 6 (1.2)



In a table, compare the structure and functions of arteries, veins and capillaries, with reference to the following:



  Arteries Veins Capillaries
Function Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues, with the exception for pulmonary arteries, which carries blood to the lungs for oxygenation (Furst, 2010). Veins play a vital role in the circulatory system. Their function is to return deoxygenated blood back to the heart after arteries carry blood out. The vena cava is the biggest vein in the body.


Capillaries are thin blood vessels. Their function is to supply tissues with nutrients and oxygen and remove waste products.
Structure of wall Arteries have a much thicker wall to withstand the high pressure of blood flowing in them, Veins have very thin walls which makes it possible for them to be pressed flat against adjacent muscles hence aiding in the movement the blood. Capillaries have much thinner walls when compared to those of the arteries and veins. The reason for this is that their walls are made up of one layer of endothelial cells, the flat cells that line all blood vessels.


Size of lumen


The walls of arteries are thicker hence are able to withstand pulsatile flow and higher blood pressures. As arteries become smaller, the thickness of the wall gently declines but the ratio of wall thickness to lumen diameter expands (i.e. relative size of lumen decreases).


Veins have a cross-sectional structure which is the same to arteries. It should however be noted that the differences is that veins have a wider lumen and thinner walls (Abramson, & Dobrin,. 2104). The walls of capillaries are significantly thinner and their lumens are correspondingly larger in diameter, allowing more blood to flow with less vessel resistance.
Presence of valves They do not have valves since the role of valves is to hinder back flow of blood. Blood pressure in veins is usually low (compared to arteries).
hence no need of valves
Veins have valves which prevents back-flow of blood flowing in them Capillaries are end vessels of arterioles. Blood of capillaries is of high pressure hence blood flows easily through the and as a result, they don’t need valves.
How structure fits function Since blood is flowing at a higher pressure, the thick walls makes it possible for arteries to withstand the high pressure. Moreover, this high pressure is the reason why arteries do not need valves.

The reason why the diameter of lumen declines in arteries, is to ensure that the flow of blood is regulated.

Since blood in veins is moving at a slower pace, valves prevent their back flow. The wider lumen and thin walls in veins makes it possible for blood to flow easily through them since blood is usually moving at a slow pace (Starr, 2018). Their thin walls allow substances to easily and quickly diffuse through them. Their larger lumen make it possible for more blood to flow with less vessel resistance. Since blood flowing through them is at a high pressure, they do not need valves (Elwell MR, Mahler, 1999).





Task 3 of 6 (1.3)


(a)   Your heart is a single organ, but it acts as a double pump in the human body

The heart operates like a double ventricle. Blood flows from the body into the right atrium, and then moves to the right ventricle where it is pumped into the lungs. Blood gets oxygenated inside the lungs, then it moves to the left atrium, and into the left ventricle where it is then pumped into the entire body again

Task 4 of 6 (2.1)

a)      Explain the term myogenic.

It refers to taking place or operating in a set rhythmic fashion owing to the inherent properties of cardiac muscle instead of certain neural stimuli. It may also refer to giving rise to/creation of muscle tissue.

b)     Main components (tissues) of the cardiac conduction system. Briefly explain the role of each in the cardiac cycle.

The primary components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibres

SA node is referred to as the heart’s natural pacemaker. It produces electrical impulses from the atrium hence causing it to contract and pump blood into the bottom chamber (the ventricle). The electrical impulse are later on conducted to the ventricles via a form of ‘junction box’ referred to as AV node (Abramson, & Dobrin,. 2104).

AV node delays impulses by about 0.12s. This delay in the cardiac pulse is very crucial sine it is meant to ensure that the atria have discharged their blood into the ventricles initially before the ventricles contract.

Bundle of His is a crucial part of the electrical conduction system of the heart since it transfers impulses from the atrioventricular node, based at the inferior end of the interatrial septum, to the ventricles of the heart. It distributes the impulse to the ventricular muscle.

Bundle branches are offshoots of the bundle of His in the heart’s ventricle. They play a vital role in the electrical conduction system of the heart in terms of transmitting cardiac action potential from the bundle of His to the Purkinje fibres (Elwell MR, Mahler, 1999).

Purkinje fibres are affected by electrical discharge from the SA node. During the ventricular contraction  section of the cardiac cycle, the Purkinje fibres transports the contraction impulse from the left and right bundle branch to the myocardium of the ventricles

Task 5 of 6 (2.2)


A clinician recorded the blood pressure of a 46 year old male patient. The results are recorded here.

a)      Explain the significance of the upper and lower figures in these recordings.



Test 1.  140/90 mmHg

Blood pressure readings contain two numbers, a case in point 140/90mmHg. The upper number is ones systolic blood pressure. (The highest pressure when ones heart beat and circulates the blood in the entire body.) The bottom number is ones diastolic blood pressure i.e. blood pressure number which shows the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats (Abramson, & Dobrin,. 2104).

Test 2   135/80 mmHg

Any readings between the ranges 90/60 to 140/90 might be taken to be perfect by a lot of people. However, a blood pressure level of 135 over 85 (135/85) might be “normal”, but individuals with such kind of reading are at risk of heart attack or stroke just like one with readings of 115 over 75 (115/75)

Test 3   140/85 mmHg

If ones blood pressure reading is 140/85 (140 over 85), it mean that the systolic pressure is 140 and the diastolic pressure is 85.  A person  which such kind of reading/blood pressure can be said to  be Prehypertension / High normal (Furst, 2010)

b)     Calculate the average recording, and compare this with the ‘normal range’ for this patient.


systolic 140 135 140
diastolic 90 80 85


Average systolic=138

Average Diastolic=85


Task 6 of 6 (2.3)


a)      Define the terms

a.       Heart rate

Heart rate has been defined to be the number of heartbeats per unit of time, mostly per minute. The heart rate entails the number of contractions of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart) (Elwell MR, Mahler, 1999). The heart rate might be too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia). Every time the heart beats; blood is pumped out of the heart and into the body to supply oxygen to working muscles or to the lungs for re-oxygenation. This complex network is made possible through the nervous system and which is a network of nerve cells and fibres that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body

b.      Stroke volume

Stroke volume has been defined as the quantity of blood that is pumped by the left ventricle of the heart via a single contraction. The stroke volume isn’t all the blood found within the left ventricle; usually, roughly two-thirds of the blood in the ventricle is discharged with every beat. Both stroke volume and heart rate, determines the output of blood by the heart per minute (cardiac output).

b)    How are these two factors affected by the concentrations of blood gases, and changes in blood pressure in response to exercise?

When the oxygen concentration is high or the carbon dioxide concentration is low, then the heart rate can slows down so as to conserve energy. The stroke volume during this period is usually rather slow

Alternatively, When the oxygen concentration is low or the carbon dioxide concentration is high, then the heart rate increases so as to burn more energy (Abramson, & Dobrin,. 2104). The stroke volume during this period is usually much faster.

A rising heart rate doesn’t make ones blood pressure to increase at the same rate.  When one is exercising, their heart speeds up the circulation of blood to reach ones muscles. When one is not excising, there blood is still normal.

Increase in cardiac leads to increased blood pressure. Cardiac Output = Heart Rate X Stroke Volume. Anything which has an impact on heart rate or stroke volume affects cardiac output and hence blood pressure.







Abramson, D. I., & Dobrin, P. B. 2104. Blood vessels and lymphatics in organ systems. Orlando, Academic Press


Elwell MR, Mahler JF. 1999. Heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. In: Pathology of the Mouse:     Reference and Atlas (Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW, eds). Cache River Press, Vienna,         IL, 361- 380.


Furst, B. 2010. The Heart and Circulation [recurso electrónico] An Integrative Model. New York:            Cengage learning


Starr, O., 2018. The Heart and Blood Vessels. [Online] Available at:           heart-and-blood-vessels [Accessed 20 Jan 2017].




The most essential nursing objectives entails continuous improvement of health care quality. The correct handling of patients is pegged on having enough number of nurses within the hospital. Shortages of nurses within the healthcare sector in America has been increasing and it has been coupled with high labor turn over (Page, & Institute of Medicine, 2014). This has been occasioned by the fact that few people are interested in pursuing nursing. Nursing leadership and management are responsible for organizing an effective health workforce so as to attain desired aims.  Shortages in nursing has also been brought about by high number of aging population in the nursing profession with no sufficient replacement (Glass, McKnight,& Valdimarsdottir, 2013, p, 149).

To curb this issue of nursing turn over, the management and leadership within the healthcare sector need to come up with ways of motivating the nurses so as reduce their high turnover rates. This paper will look at leadership and Management in Nursing in relation to nursing shortage and nurse turn-over. The paper will also focus on my individual and professional philosophy of nursing & how I would expect nursing leaders to approach this issues.

Analysis of Leadership and Manager Approach to the Issue

Factors which may drive nurse turnover include: been overworked, lack of opportunities, lack of recognition, poor relationship with management and colleagues and poor communication among others(Glass, McKnight,& Valdimarsdottir, 2013, p, 151). Management styles of the health organization play a crucial role when it comes to promoting workplace empowerment, commitment to the company and job satisfaction among the nurses. It entails personal traits and behavioral characteristics of individuals in position to influence group interactions and attainment of organizational objectives.

There are several principles which can be used by nursing leaders to deal with nursing turnover. For instance, nursing leaders can try to get to the root cause of the issue leading to high turnover. As a result, it would be easier for the management to know how to deal with it. If it is the issue related to poor communication, low payment or lack of career opportunities, the management can look for ways to ensure that it solves this issues. Moreover, the management of the healthcare can use the Maslow hierarchy of needs to ensure that it well placed to meet the needs of the nurses (Gustafson, 2011, p, 109). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs which are divided into three broad categories (basic, psychological and self-fulfillment needs).

The image besides provides a summary of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. If nursing management is able to meet this needs, it would be able to minimize employee turnover. When nurses see that the firm that they are working is meeting their needs, they will be motivated to be committed to it and help it to attain its aims.

Leadership styles also tends to play a vital role when it comes to employee turnover. Autocratic leadership style, also called coercive or dictatorship tends to make nurses to leave the institution.Relationship-oriented leader ship style would play a crucial role in minimizing employee turnover. The reason for this is that the main concern of relationship-oriented leaders is directed towards creating and coming up with interpersonal relationship. Relationship-oriented leaders are focused on a two-way type of communication with their subordinates unlike the Autocratic leader who prefers one way communication style (Alexander, Bloom,&Nuchols, p, 509, 2014).

Skills needed to ensure that staff turnover is minimized include creating a supportive work environment, offering recognition for a job well done and been good at motivating the nurses. These skills play a vital role in ensuring that the nurses remain committed to the firm. Having skills in creating a supportive work environment goes a long way in ensuring that employees do not feel alone but it creates a family like environment which strengthens the bonds among the staffs hence enabling them to be committed to the organization. Having skills in showing appreciation /recognizing good performance by the staffs sends a message to the nurses that the leadership values their hard work(Gustafson, 2011, p, 112). Having skills in motivating employees on the part of management would inspire staffs to work harder towards enabling the company to achieve its objectives.

As earlier noted, nurses turnover is bought about by lack of career opportunity. To handle this, the management can offer training opportunities for the nurses. This would ensure that the nurses gain additional skills and which would enable them to climb up the corporate ladder.  Besides offering training opportunities, the management can instead of hiring from external market to fill vacant position in the organization, it can instead hire internally hence ensuring that there is low employee turnover(Finkelmann, 2016).

My Personal Approach

Employees leave organizations due to various reasons. Personally, I would ensure that I would ensure that I create a supportive and family like environment. Such a move would ensure that the nurses receive all the support that they need. Moreover it would ensure that the bond among the employees is enhanced(Page, & Institute of Medicine, 2014). Besides this, I would use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to ensure that the nurses remain committed to the firm.Maslow’s hierarchy of needs offers a perfect way in which I would be able to meet the various needs to the nurses. By addressing/meeting each of these needs, I would able to ensure that the staffs/nurses remain committed to the organization hence lowering their turnover rates(Finkelmann, 2016). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs offers an overview of what nurses are looking for and they are likely to remain committed to firms which are meeting their needs. As a result, it would be best measure/strategy to use to ensure that employee turnover is reduced.

The last approach that I would use is to hire the right employees. Retaining staffs begins with employing the right staffs. Firms are likely employstaffsthat have the necessary skills which matchesthe vacant position in the company. However, the question that arises entails how well does the new recruits fit within the business’s culture? I would ensure that I employ people who portrays behavioral has skills and culture that fits with the job/company.If nurses does not fit in with the work environment, they are likely to beunhappy (Finkelmann, 2016). As a result, they will not fit in, they will not get along with their colleagues, and they are likely to feel lonely. A skilled and qualified staffwho does not match the behaviors and culture of one’s organization,cannot stay for long and as a result,they are likely to leave and take their skills somewhere else where it fits in well.

Funding source which addresses the issue

For the issue about nursing shortage and nurse turn-over to be solved, resources and finances are required to ensure that the issue is handled effectively. As a result possible source of funding may come from HRSA. Besides this, it may also come from within the organization itself.


Nursing shortage and nurse turn-over is an issue affecting many firms. As a result, it is making many healthcare institutions not to be able to offer quality services. Issues such as lack of career opportunities, poor communication, lack of support and lack of recognition of their efforts. Leadership style and skills are vital in ensuring that the nursing shortage and turnover is reduced. I would use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to tackle the issue related to employee turnover.


Alexander, J. A., Bloom, J. R., & Nuchols, B. A. (2014). Nursing turnover and hospital     efficiency: An organizational-level analysis. Industrial Relations, 33, 505-520

  1. Gustafson, (2011) “staff turnover: Retention”. International journal of contemporary Hospitality manage management, 14 (3) pp106-113,

Finkelmann, A. W. (2016). Leadership and management in nursing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall   [u.a..

Glass, D.C., McKnight, J.D., & Valdimarsdottir, H. (2013). Depression, burnout, and       perceptions of control in hospital nurses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical    Psychology, 61, 147-155

Page, A., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). (2014). keeping patients safe: Transforming the work      environment of nurses. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press




Why do people cling to abusive relationships?

The world over, people enter into relationships because they feel they lack something that can only be provided when they socialize.  That human beings are social in nature is something that can be argued against. As such, people will always strive to maintain relationships even when they feel betrayed, trust or generally abused in them. This is especially in the male-female relationships where power relations play a major role. And this mostly affects women who stick to their relationships more even if such relationships are abusive as compared to their male counterparts.  Paul Sunstone explains that “a lot of women seem to have a great deal of emotional difficulty leaving an abusive spouse” choosing instead to stay in such relationships forever even if it “destroys their mental and emotional well-being, crushes their self-esteem, and — perhaps — even threatens their lives or the lives of their children” (“Why Women Sometimes Become Addicted to Abusive Partners”). He however asserts that in other instances, even abused men find it difficult to part ways with an abusive partner just like women.

Partners in abusive relationships always have varied reasons for staying put in them. These range from economic dependence, cultural norms to family ties and unknown fears that bind them together even when the circumstances are not in favour of the union.

For a start, a spouse whose source of livelihood is the partner will naturally find it hard him/her even if they are constantly battered. An example is a housewife whose daily routine is homecare and taking care of children. If such a woman were to leave her abusive marriage, she, automatically would have no way providing for even the very basic needs for her children. Likewise, a jobless man whose only source of livelihood is his wife may find it difficult to leave their home even if torrents of abuses are poured on him daily.


Religious and cultural norms also force abused people to stick to their partners. Fatmatah Conteth in “Letter to my Sisters” presents a very harrowing experience of women who are persecuted by their male counterparts in the name of religion. In that instance everything good  is about men and anything to be enjoyed is for them while women labour to ensure their comfort. But what can women do? Nothing because that is what Islam, the religious setting of the story, dicatates to society. There is no practical sense in the whole essence of obeying religious laws that are high handed on one particlura group of the society because of gender but there is nothing they can do. There are also those catholics who belive that divorce is against the teachings. The only viable alternative for them is to put up with spousal abuse in the hope that it will go away one day.

Other people also rationalize staying in abusive relationships as the right thing to do in the best interests of the family especially children. They may ask themselves “I am in this marriage because of the children. What’s the use of leaving it for my sake? How will the society view children raised in a broken home?”

The combination of sympathy for the abuser, belief that such acts of abuse may not happen gain or the feeling that they can change the abuser can also conspire to make survivors of such abuse stay put in relationships.

Be that as it may, clinging to a relationship against the odds stuck to it by abuse may have a number of consequences ranging from minor to worst case scenarios. Apart from just the visible physical effects, it also comes with psychological and economic effects as well as impacting negatively on the family especially where children are involved.

Physical health consequences are varied especially where battering is the form of abuse. These cause medical problems even as a person grows older.. Some may even lead to disability. Pronounced medical disorders such as diabetes or hypertension may be worsened in victims of victims of such constant abuse especially f they  are not able to break that cycle and either seek medication or run away from such abusive relationships. Conditions such as arthritis, hypertension and heart disease may be exacerbated by repeated abuse. Other forms of physical injury are, bruises, broken bones, head injuries, internal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, abdominal pains, sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Victims may also experience pregnancy-related problems. For those women are repeatedly battered during pregnancy, they may be at risk of  poor weight gain, pre-term labor, miscarriage, low infant birth weight, and injury to or death of the fetus.

In as much as the immediate focus on abuse and the underlying visible impacts are normally physical, there is also always the negative effect on the emotional wellbeing of a person.  In the long term, someone will always feel depressed and believe that they do not belong in the general society.  In “The River Between” Ngugi wa Thiong’o presents a classic example where a woman’s true potential is “sleeping” because of the overbearing nature of the husband. In other instances, victims of prolonged abusive relationships are characterized by nightmares, anxiety, insomnia and hyper vigilance.

Where children are involved, they bear the greatest brunt of emotional difficulties and to some extent physical as well as behavioral changes especially when they witness domestic abuse.   Their response to such traumatic situation may include aggression, and withdrawal.

Constant abuse in relationships may also make one to lose their potential. One becomes docile and economically unproductive. Societies that require women to abandon their jobs and take up homecare only increase overdependence on men even where women can contribute significantly to their economic wellbeing.   Constant abuse also makes victims be absent from work and they may eventually lose their jobs.

To be in an abusive relationship is generally the most devastating thing for a man or woman even though it becomes very difficult to break that cycle by way of quitting. The reasons expounded are as varied especially depending on the societal expectations of the background from which one comes as well as family backgrounds. One thing stands out though: that sticking to such unions have devastating effects not only to an individual psychologically, emotionally or physically; but also to the society as whole in terms of development of its people and the economy.  It  brings in a whole cycle that if left unchecked, can ruin whole societies.




Cybercrime is an offense that occurs on the computer and the Internet world.Cybercrimes are one of the biggest problems in cyber world so that it needs to be obliterated as soon as possible. Examples of cyber crime are identified theft, financial fraud, website defacement, and cyber bullying. The invention of internet-enhanced people in exchanging information based on networks of computers. The crime began in 1960s and it is heightening as the technology improves. The cyber crime has caused many effects such as; security effects, loss of money and so on. They can be summed up by the psychological or physical harm caused by the cyber crime.Turning various acts to have been passed by time. Implementing punishments over the crime can be one good step to overcoming such as well as making people get to know their rights and duties.


  1. Introduction. 1

2       Cyber crime History. 1

  1. Effects of Cyber Crime. 2
  2. Conclusion. 4
  3. Introduction

Cyber crime is a terminology used to refer to criminal activity involving a computer. Commonly know examples are identified theft, financial fraud, website defacement, and cyber bullying. In an organization, the cyber crime can involve hacking of databases. Today the crime is becoming sophisticated as the technology advances. In cybercrime, a different tool is used such as theft, fraud, extortion, a crime against a person and computer incidental. The crime causes either psychological or physical harm. The paper will discuss the history of cyber crime and the effects the cyber crime has in an organization and conclusions according to the current technology (Gerdes, 45)

  • CyberCrime History.

Marcum (23) argues that, in 1960’s is when we had the first publication of cybercrime report. During this era, computers used were large mainframe systems. The crimes commonly experienced during this time were majorly coming from within the cyberspace. Therefore, these meant workers would access the computer. The cyber crime in between the 1960s and 1970s was different from the cyber crime we faced with today because during that time there was no existence of internet as there is today.

However in the following decades, computer network has increased as well as people getting knowledge and creating loopholes in the crime (Marcum, 42). The invention of internet-enhanced people in exchanging information based on networks of computers.  Again, the way of doing things changed and now people are storing their data in the computer and few on paper. More so, the process is similar to the course of learning one language. Cybercrime can view in three aspects which are elaborated in the three following sections and in each section some latest cases will be studied.  A computer is attacked by a hacker who breaks into it. Alternatively, he can attack from outside. The cyber crime is the most professional out of the three cybercrime categories. The reason a criminal will do programming and ensures he makes better use of some exploits on the computer. He would always have a good computer science background. The main cyber crime types are hacking and malware (Suri, 30).

  1. Effects of Cyber Crime.

Due to the advanced technology criminals take advantage of it. The Internet is significantly used as a pavement all the scammers and miscreants. Furthermore, the internet gives the criminals trade without any identity.  Cyber crime is affecting people in several ways (Gerdes, 45)

The commonly used techniques by the scammers are phishing.  Others send false emails this person claim to be coming from financial institutions such a bank and fake it open for one credit account. Again, they trick people by opening new accounts for them and destroy their credit rating. The damage can even take longer time but in the protection of the account.

Cyber criminals also stretch to businesses either large or small. The hackers may come in as real people perhaps software engineers and convince a company on software.  Though the intention may not be suitable for their benefit.  Studies show that many organizations are losing a lot of money though cyber security (Hinson, 21).

Monetary losses can be immense especially through cyber crime. Studies show that many people are being deceived easily and fall, the victim, every day. This range from passwords theft to great monetary swindles. Consumers are getting wisdom on the old ways avenues of attack, and therefore, the cyber criminals are now developing and keep on sharpening their skills on the new techniques. Currently, mobile devices are used and social networks for illicit deals.

Reyes, (35) argues that, piracy one of the techniques in cybercrime has contributed to major effects especially on the entertainment and music industry as well as the software industry. Damage claims have been rising every year, and they are hard to estimate and to verify.   Estimations have been reaching even millions and billions of money every year.  To respond on such incidences, copyright holders have been lobbying for stricter laws. The law is against intellectual property theft that can result in. These laws only allow copyright holders in targeting file sharers and sue them for large sums of money to counteract the financial damage of their activities online.

It will sound defenseless if the military technology is stolen and strengthening potential opponents as well as harming export markets. They can be situated strategically such as in aerospace, advanced materials, and the high-tech products (Girds, 45).

Similarly, computer viruses that can generate havoc on your PC system are just as criminal. The viruses can cost companies millions and dollars in time to repair an infected system. Organizations are now having sections of their website devoted to cyber-crime, with In the viruses can as well be passed to a computer unexpectedly through different formats.  The viruses can manifest through emails, software that is infected, not forgetting the diskettes or computer documents. Furthermore, for one to regularly run Internet web browsing which causes significant problems he or she should be keen with the known security exploits the Operating System of the computer being used. Otherwise, this can also be a loophole.  Unknowingly, someone may come in and open stuff thinking they are a legitimate webpage. Unfortunately, the downloads may have viruses. Currently, when people talk about cybercrimes, they may not understand the extent of these crimes (Gerdes, 45).

This problem is not only affecting developing countries but also developed countries such as the US which suffered more than 74million people in cyber crimes that occurred in 2010. As today’s consumer has become increasingly dependent on computers and networks, the risk of being subjected to cybercrimes also has high.  With an increase in the economy leads to an increase in the use of the internet. Therefore, the higher the exposure to cyber crimes. Staggeringly, stocks are traded via The Internet, bank transactions are performed through Internet and purchases are made using the credit card via The Internet. Therefore, productivity is probably at risk. Attacks from viruses will take productive time from the user. Machines could perform more slowly, servers might be accessible, and the network might be jammed and so on. Such instances of attacks affect the overall productivity of user and organization (Suri, 29)

As cyber-attackers intrude into others’space and try to break the logic of the page, the end customer visiting the concerned page will be frustrated and discouraged to use the said site on a long term basis. Making the customer have their confidence lost in the said site and the Internet. Consumer perception a be just as powerful or damaging as fact. Even the slightest perception of security risk or amateurish commerce seriously jeopardizes potential business (Reyes, 36).

Many groups of professionals are using computers today. The modern military also makes use of advanced computers heavily. When intruders find systems that are easy to break into, they only hack into the systems.  Both terrorists and criminals make their plans and implement their criminal activities with the help of information technology. The increase in international interaction and the wide spread usage of information technology has facilitated the growth of crime and terrorism (Hynson, 54).

McIntosh, (16) suggested that, because of the advanced communication technology, people want to be mobile for the planning of such deals.  This is what has been giving terrorists and criminals some security loopholes in the system. Again, it has been observed that they normally have unusual locales rather their country of residence. The crimes usually originate from developing countries. It could be because many people lack employment.

The security hacks have been entertained by the corruption that has considerably been witnessed in the developing countries. As much as we might want to eradicate the crime, theinternet has helped fund such offenses using fraudulent bank transaction or money transfer. Greater encryption technology is supporting these criminal activities (Hynson, 67).

  1. Conclusion

The cyber crimes have ben an ongoing challenge besides advancements made by many countries. Consequently, there is a desperate need for countries on a global scale to come together and decide on what constitute a cybercrime and develop ways in which to persecute criminals across different countries. It is almost impossible to reduce cybercrimes from the cyber-space. Turning various acts to have been passed by time. Implementing punishments over the crime can be one good step to overcoming such as well as making people get to know their rights and duties. Nevertheless, business should employ practices where their employees follow proper safety practices to ensure that integrity and confidentially of stored information is kept at all times to combat cyber crimes. Undoubtedly, cybercrimes are one of the biggest problems in cyber world so that it needs to be obliterated as soon as possible.


Works Cited

Gerdes, L. I. Cyber crime. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Print.

Hynson, Colin. Cyber Crime. Mankato: Smart Apple Media, 2012. Print.

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