Health and Medicine

Foltz, Jennifer L., Brook Belay, and George L. Blackburn. “Improving the Weight of the Nation by Engaging the Medical Setting in Obesity Prevention and Control.” Journal of Law,          Medicine & Ethics 41. (2013): 19-26. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

This article suggests strategies that can be used in improving health care in the society. The author stresses on the importance of collaboration between public health and primary care in reducing obesity in the US population. The author invokes the emotion of the reader by illustrating the implication of obesity on health and implement the suggestions in controlling and preventing obesity. The article is resourceful in suggesting approaches that are to be used in improving health care among people by preventing obesity.


Foss, Tara D. “Grave bearing: how dignity will be dealt with on wards.” British Journal of Nursing           11 May 2006: 481. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

This article discusses the dignity which nurses are supposed to express to patients while in hospital wards. The author argues that nurses should be friendly, approachable and caring and criticized the conduct of some nurses for neglecting and abusing elderly patients. This article urges the government to train nurses on how to communicate and interact with patient regardless of their age to improve the quality of health care. The author is persuasive to the government to assist in developing dignity and values in the nursing profession. This article is a useful reference for research because it provides non-medical approaches of improving health care in a clinical setting.

Fouladbakhsh J, Stommel M. Gender, Symptom Experience, and Use of Complementary and       Alternative Medicine Practices Among Cancer Survivors in the U.S. Cancer Population.           Oncology Nursing Forum [serial online]. January 2010; 37 (1): E7-E15. Available from:         Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 5, 2014.

This article identifies the relationship among physical, sex, psychological and physical symptoms. In addition, the author of the article recommends the use of alternative and complementary medical (CAM) procedure to be used in patients with cancer in the US population. The research was conducted using specific CAM approaches on the variables. The use of CAM was more prevalent in the female, educated and middle aged participants.  Depression, pain and insomnia were predictors in the case study of gender and the practice type where CAM was widely used by women with cancer in the US population. This article is a useful source of information for researchers as it provides detailed information on the  CAM approach in improving the health care of cancer patients.  The author uses data from the National HealthInterview Survey, for the purpose of obtaining credible information on the prevalent group that used the Cam practice.


Goodwin, James S., Dong D. Zhang, and Glenn V. Ostir. “Effect of Depression on Diagnosis,     Treatment, and Survival of Older Women with Breast Cancer.” Journal of the American     Geriatrics Society 52.1 (2004): 106-111. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

This article examines the effect of diagnosis, treatment and the way of survival for elderly women with breast cancer. Qualitative research methods were used to assess the level of depression in women with breast cancer and determine the treatment approach to be used in assisting them to cope with the condition. The article recommends ways to assist women to overcome depression and provide information on how to identify depression early to intervene the situation. This article provides information and recommendation on the issue of depression in older women and invokes people to learn ways of identifying the signs of depression at an early stage to assist women to overcome the situation. It also provides technics of improving the health by reducing the number of complications in women with breast cancer.


Schermel, Alyssa, et al. “Canadians’ Perceptions of Food, Diet, and Health – A National Survey.”            Plos ONE 9.1 (2014): 1-8. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

This article examines the implications of poor diet on the health. This may lead to obesity and overweight among people, resultingin chronic diseases that are related to poor nutrition in Canada. The author analyzes some of the barriers perceived in the consumption of health foods and compares to the actual health status of the population. According to this research article, a large part of the population believes that their health status is good while the other part perceive their health and diet and poor. They’re perceived barriers to healthy eating arises from attitude of people. This article is important to the concept of health and medicine, as it provides details on how to overcome barriers to health nutrition in promoting healthy eating habits in the society. This case study, was conducted in Canada with the aim of promoting healthier eating habits.


Tomasallo, Carrie D., et al. “Estimating Wisconsin Asthma Prevalence Using Clinical Electronic   Health Records and Public Health Data.” American Journal of Public Health 104.1 (2014):             e65-e73. Business Source Premier. Web. 5 Mar. 2014.

This article examines health survey that was conducted to estimate the prevalence of asthma from health systems in Wisconsin. The survey was conducted between the year 2007 and 2009 to determine the prevalence of asthma in different race and ages using electronic health records. This article is useful to the concept of health and medicine because the data can be used to improve the health care of people through identifying risk factors that lead to the prevalence of chronic diseases among the people. It is a useful source of information as the author appeal the public health experts to use data that is credible in assist in overcoming chronic conditions.


Positive Psychology

Economic and social regression continue to dominate and prevail in the US economy since the great period of regression in the 1930s. According to the labor department in the US, there are approximate more than 14 million of people in the population that remain unemployed. inanother case, thereare more than 6.3 million people who are working in positions that they don’t like either as a part time worker or as wait for another opportunity. Notably, in the American society in the recent year there is an increase in the rate of unemployment rate, severe constraint to the government and the depression of prices of houses.  This has led to prolonged stigmatization and economic hardship among a large number of population in the US causing psychological problems among people which later develop to stress. As a result of economic hardship on the US people suffering from financial crisis and become worried about their future welfare. They become stressed and eventually depressed, causing social isolation and depression related diseases such as stroke and heart attack (Ross& Hill, 2013, p. 547).

This call for the need of positive psychology therapy among people to assist them become more active through interventions that are effective and scientifically based understanding to develop inspiring individuals and families. A large part of the population in the US require to undergo through a positive psychological therapy to enable them cope with the economic hardship situation in the country and life a normal life that is more fulfilling. Positive psychologycan be used as an effective therapy rather than undertaking people through a psychological treatment program.  Stress and economic hardship situation in the US is demanding for positive psychology among people. A large part of the population is stressed by their current status and issues that are surrounding them and financial hardship that is prevalent in the American society (Seligman &Csikszentmihalyi, 2000, p. 5).

Personally am not happy and satisfied with my current status that surround my life. I do experience hardship which is related to financial constraint in paying school fees and paying my billing. However, I engage in activities that me to be happy with my current situation such as participating in soccer to help me reduce social isolation events which lead to the worsening of the situation. i also an active member of a group in the school that was formed to assist people to appreciate their current situation.


Positive psychology is an effective approach in reducing stress and an alternative to traditional methods. Positive psychology can be used to inspire people and assist them to positively think and improve their situation.



Ross, C. E., & Hill, T. D. (2013). Reconceptualizing the Association between Food Insufficiency             and Body Weight: Distinguishing Hunger from Economic Hardship. Sociological       perspectives: SP: official publication of the Pacific Sociological Association, 56(4), 547.


Seligman, M. E., &Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction (Vol. 55,     No. 1, p. 5). American Psychological Association.



Business Communications

Apple manufacture and sell mobile communication devices, personal computers, portable video and audio players, and other related products and services. The company ventured into the smartphone industry, when it started manufacturing iPhone doubling its success and increasing market share at a global level. Smartphones remain as the main revenue generator in the company up to date. The company provides educational resources for employees through the company supply chain that range from training their rights language and computer skill for recruits. This paper seek develop communication material for Apple recruit workers on the companies culture, procedure and general information to sensitize them about the company operations.

There are several cultures practices by employees at Apple Inc., where senior management understands and recognize issues surrounding conflicts between personal life and work in the effort on creating an atmosphere that promote management sensitivity in the company. Apple has polices that assist workers resolve work-related problems in the effort of establishing supportive and flexible environment for workers. The management has the role of providing opportunities and address issues that arise in the firm. New recruits have the rights to analyze and reaffirm policies purpose and remove barriers to the appropriate application. At the same time, the company expect worker to do quality work and a high degree of commitment. Secondly, new recruits have access to work modules and reference materials that are developed and included in supervisory training sessions. Worker has the right of access educational programs to assist them manage themselves while offering their services to the company. This step refers to the purposeful stage, where business messages offer information, solve the problem that may arise and request resources required to accomplish a goal (Guffey& Loewy, 2010, p. 57).

The aim of the firm is to upturn its market share for the purpose of making the company more profitable and customer oriented. New recruits are required to abide by policy established by the firm. This step assists managers at Apple Inc. Assist new workers comprehend the company’s culture and form collaborative effort to accomplish goals. The message is prepared with the consideration of recruits’ background and needs.

Thirdly, the communication material seek to promote the welfare of new recruits in the company be sensitizing them on their rights, compensation and some of the benefits packages that have to claim from the company. In addition, recruits are informed their role in their position within the company. This step seeks to provide information on an efficient and timely manner. Information is prepared short without deviating from the subject.

The purpose of the communication material is to assist new recruits understand Apple Inc. culture, procedure and general information about the company. Providing workers with information also assist them claim their rights in the workplace. Communication channel to be used is formal channels transmits information such as policies, goals and procedures on an organization through a chain of command. Information flow from managers to subordinate workers. The approach is used to because it is an efficient and effective for manager to transmit information to subordinate workers (Riff, Lacy & Fico, 2014, p. 81).

Apple workforce undergoes changes on a continuous basis, as a result of changes in consumers’ needs. The firm understand the nature of dramatic changes and their implications on its ability to meet business objective. Management seeks to continue to recruit, maintain and manage a highly productive work force. Apple Inc. provide educational training on the changing nature of its operation and increase opportunities for employees with the aim of assisting them reach their full potential.


The aim of communication materials is to provide information on new workers about the company because the company emphasis on strict enforcement of accountability where every worker has a direct responsible for all their actions.



Guffey, M. E., & Loewy, D. (2010). Business communication: Process and product. Cengage      Learning.

Riff, D., Lacy, S., & Fico, F. (2014). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content          analysis in research. Routledge.


Emergency Response Guide

Emergency response guide is a guidebook published to illustrate ways of emergency action to emergency response personnel. This book is used in scenarios when emergency response personnel are responding to transportation emergence calls involving hazardous materials.  Emergency response guide is a published book primarily used in the transportation of hazardous materials by roadway, railway and air. This book is a useful source of information and resources for preparing and responding to health emergencies and information on how to save more lives in case of a medical emergency resulting from an accident related with hazardous materials.  Firefighters, policemen and paramedics are supposed to carry the book to assist them when an emergency incidence occurs (United States., Canada & Mexico, 2012, 56).

The booklet is divided into four sections on the basis of the color for easy access of information. In case of an emergency situation responders use the guidebook to understand the different ways examining and managing an emergency situation. The book illustrates different emergency scenario and the procedure to be followed to manage the situation.  The book stipulated protocol to be followed whenever an accident arising from the hazardous event occurs. It illustrates the signs to look for in an emergency situation, examining the situation, steps to be followed, assistance call to the appropriate department and ways of controlling people in the accident spot to reduce further damage and injuries. It’s the duty of response personnel to carry the booklet. However, they must undergo thorough training on to understand ways to respond to emerging incident sin addition to the Emergency response guide.

In a scenario where an accident and a hazardous material spillage occurs. Response personnel must act quickly using the guidelines of the Emergence response guide to reduce the impact of the spill. Action to be undertaken will depend on complexity, hazardous degree and the magnitude of the spillage. In the scenario, emergency response team should stay calm and inform other agencies on the potential risk posed by chemical spillage and the hazardous impact it’s likely to cause to other people in the society.  Response team should inform emergency teams which are stipulated in the guide book to reduce these impact and injuries on the site.

Secondly, the response team should assist injured individuals in the accident. They should pay special attention to individuals who have been contaminated with the chemical reduce the impact and save more lives as possible. The emergence response team should provide a first aid assistance to injured individuals as per the emergence response guidebook. In case an individual is contaminated with the chemical, the emergence team should lead them to an emergency shower or eye washing to assist them wash of the chemical.  They should ensure the proper guidelines are followed to prevent themselves from becoming victims in the accident(United States., Canada & Mexico, 2012, 158).

Thirdly, they should consider whether the accident is an emergency and the risk it pose to people, properties and the environment. The response team clarifies whether the spillage is classified as hazardous and the quality of spillage. If emergence need arises response team should call for an addition support by including the nature of the situation, location, impact and presence of injuries and preliminary report on how the incident occurred. Fourthly, the response team should call for help for all expect a scenario when the spills is a minor. In a scenario when the spillage is minor and the injury level is low, the response team can assist victims at the accident site and contact medical intervention in a scenario when the spillage is beyond the mandate of the response team Finally, the response team should manage and clean the spillage to prevent any more injuries at the accident site. Response team should obtain information on how to ensure that thorough cleanup are conducted effectively and in a safe way. The response team should make a report to the department of environmental health and safety using the Emergency response guide(United States., Canada & Mexico, 2012, 172).


This book is used in scenarios when emergency response personnel are responding to transportation emergence calls involving hazardous materials.  Emergency response guide is a published book primarily used in the transportation of hazardous materials.




United States.Canada.& Mexico. (2012). 2012 emergency response guidebook: A guidebook for   first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods/hazardous materials   transportation incident. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Pipeline and             Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

Healthcare Law

The Obama protection and affordable care act often referred to as Obama care is a federal law in the United States. The bill was brought into law on March 2010, following Obama’s aims of improving health care services and protection patients from abuse on the basis of financial status. The affordable Care Act was effected with the goals of enhancing the quality of health and provision of affordable health care service to American citizens, through lowering the percentage of uninsured people in the country. The Affordable Care Act increased private and public insurance coverage and through reduction of health care cost for the government and individual citizens.

After the implementation was enforcement of the law numerous mechanism that were brought strategies that were adopted including subsidies, mandate and insurance exchange aimed increasing affordability and coverage of health insurance. According to the guideline set by law, insurance companies are expected to provide health care cover to all citizens and individual at a low cost and subject them to equal premiums regardless of their status or sex in the society. in addition, the law aims at the cost of health care and enhance health care outcomes by changing the health care system from quantity to quality through regulations increased competition and motivations aimed at improving health care delivery. According to health care and economic expertise the Affordable Care Act, was expected to reduce future deficits due to the increased cost of health care and reduce Medicare expenses. More than ten million individuals have enrolled with different health insurance companies across the country by May 2014 since the Affordable Care Act was enforced into law (CCH Incorporated, & Wolters Kluwer (Firm). 2010, p. 54). The law is a success in the country was a new applicant have selected health care companies in the marketplaces while another three million individuals have enrolled with Medicaid after the Affordable Care Act rollout.

The Affordable Care Act includes several plans that are supposed to roll out between the period between 2010 and 2020. The law brought reforms in health care provision that started to be implemented from January 2014. Some of the reforms include guaranteed prohibition of insurers from denying people from benefiting from the coverage on the basis of their status in the society and according to partial community rating. Insurance companies are required to stipulate a standardized premium rate to the applicant in the same geographical area and the same age bracket regardless of the pre-existing health conditions and their gender. However, medical conditions arising from the use of tobacco are excluded from the law. The Affordable Care Act led to the establishment of minimal health care policies which set on a standardized basis. All individual coverage does not include people with employer catered health care, Medicare and other public health care in providing health insurance unless the individual is in extreme financial problem or a member of a religious sect that is exempted from internal revenue service. The Affordable Care Act includes subsidies to assist people earning low income to apply and service the health insurance service. Low income families and individual and considered as on the federal poverty level will be eligible to receive government subsidies (CCH Incorporated, & Wolters Kluwer (Firm). 2010, p. 71).

The Affordable Care Act declines the number of the uninsured individuals. The law has to mechanism that ensures an increase in coverage of insurance including establishing a state-based insurance exchange program where people and small business owners are eligible for the insurance plan and increasing Medicaid edibility to ensure people in the range of 138 percent of the federal poverty level receive state subsidies. The Affordable Care Act intend to reduce the number of uninsured people from 32 million across the country only 23 million residents are expected to remain uninsured when the law was effected. Elderly citizens are also eligible in the program increasing the percentage of insured people from 84 to 94 percent (CCH Incorporated, & Wolters Kluwer (Firm). 2010, p. 79). By mid-2012, an estimate of three million individuals were already enrolled into the medical coverage revealing the success, resulting from the expansion of Medicaid. Some people who remain as uninsured include illegal migrants all across the country consisting about 8 million individuals because they remain ineligible for Medicaid and federal subsidies. Illegal immigrant are exempted from health insurance mandate. Other people who remain uninsured are citizens who have not enrolled with insurance companies and Medicaid, but remain eligible. The intentions of the expanding insurance coverage are to reduce job lock and medical bankruptcies arising from the increased cost of health care in the country. The Affordable Care Act is a success after the expansion of the health care coverage assisting in controlling the cost. Heath care providers have adopted to new payment system because of the decreased cost of operation and increase pool for distribution of risks among insurance companies, as a result, of increased in number of people under the coverage. Population of insured individuals has increased gradually since the Affordable Care Act was rolled out.

The overall health care in the US has improved significantly after the enforcement of the Act. Majority of people who were apparently uninsured and were overwhelmed by the cost of healthcare. People can now access quality health care service as an insurance coverage will cater for the cost incurred. Majority of people use bill their health care bills using insurance coverage while health care providers concentrate on quality rather than quantity.

After the Affordable Care Act was rolled out insurance premiums change and becoming standardized. Health insurance condition that were apparently exercised where banned to give people access to equal health care coverage and eliminate premium price discrimination on the basis of the gender or existing health care condition. Individual under the care of their parents and were under the age of 26 year were under the insurance coverage of their parents (CCH Incorporated, & Wolters Kluwer (Firm). 2010, p. 82). The law prohibits insurers from imposing coverage on annual and lifetime basis on essential health care benefits. Some of the essential benefits include emergency services, ambulatory patient services, mental health and prenatal and postnatal services. Despite the presence of different form of premium rate paid by different applicants.

The Act is faced with challenges in the implementation of the national court, the congress and from some state government. Health policy experts and Democrats argue that the guaranteed issue requires both individual mandate and community rating to prevent free riding from creating an insurance death spiral. Republicans started opposing the adoption of the individual mandate as one of Democrat’s key component of the proposed reforms. They threaten to filibuster any bill that is contained in the health in the act arguing that the mandate is unconstitutional. The federal court arguing that the states should not be forced to in the implementation and expansion of the Medicaid expansion, allowing states to opt out of this provisional.

The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluated the proposed health care act to revoke it as a law. This estimate was prior to the ruling of the Supreme Court that enabled states to opt out of the Act. CBO estimated that revoking taxing and spending provisions would increase the net deficit for the year 2011-2021 by $ 210 billion (CCH Incorporated, & Wolters Kluwer (Firm). 2010, p. 54).




The affordable Care Act was effected with the goals of enhancing the quality of health and provision of affordable health care service to American citizens, through lowering the percentage of uninsured people in the country. The Affordable Care Act increased private and public insurance coverage and through reduction of health care cost for the government and individual citizens. After the implementation was enforcement of the law numerous mechanism that were brought strategies that were adopted including subsidies, mandate and insurance exchange aimed increasing affordability and coverage of health insurance. The overall health care in the US has improved significantly after the roll out of the program. Majority of people who were apparently uninsured and were overwhelmed by the cost of healthcare. People can now access quality health care service as an insurance coverage will cater for the cost incurred. Majority of people use bill their health care bills using insurance coverage while health care providers concentrate on quality rather than quantity. The Affordable Care Act intend to reduce the number of uninsured people from 32 million across the country only 23 million residents are expected to remain uninsured when the law was effected. The Affordable Care Act includes subsidies to assist people earning low income to apply and service the health insurance service. Low income families and individual and considered as on the federal poverty level will be eligible to receive government subsidies.






CCH Incorporated.& Wolters Kluwer (Firm). (2010). Law, explanation and analysis of the            Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Including Reconciliation Act impact.         Chicago, IL: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.


Cloud computing threats, vulnerabilities and attacks

There is a much talk and debate about cloud computing technology from the time of Web 2.0. It is one of the technologies that have been lauded to be cost-saver. Cloud computing entails numerous key technologies that have been developed over the years. Among organizations, cloud computing provides numerous benefits that save cost, although there are many vulnerability issues for the service providers and users. However, there is still some laxity with the implementation of cloud computing by most companies. Subsequently, there are still security issues and vulnerabilities that are associated with cloud computing.

Cloud computing is vulnerable to attacks just like any other technology. Most companies prefer to secure their resources and assets than let them reside in the cloud (Latif, Abbas, Assar, & Ali, 2014). In a cloud, existing threats, vulnerabilities, and associated attacks raise critical security concerns. Ideally, there is a vulnerability in Cloud.  These are loopholes that are found in the security architecture of the Cloud. However, these loopholes can be exploited using adversaries through intricate and specialized techniques in order to access infrastructure resources and network.

Cloud vulnerabilities and threats

Vulnerability is a well-known factor of risk. There are many connections that are seen to be there with the cloud. This makes cloud computing to have many vulnerabilities. One of the vulnerabilities of cloud computing is loss of data due to leakage. However, because Data is in the cloud, there are no mechanisms that the owner of the data can do to protect the data from being lost (Zissis, & Lekkas, 2012). The organization that owns the data has no control of the data. There are data protection solutions that have been developed in the market that offer the solution of availability. They are meant to offer availability, and integrity of the data. They do not insure against the loss of data (Bamiah, & Brohi, 2011).

Abuse and Suspicious use of Cloud

Users receive many types of services from cloud providers, including; storage capacity and bandwidth. However, some users are provided with a free trial period that gives malicious users and hackers opportunities to easily access the cloud with disreputable intentions. Among the impacts of these attacks include; decoding, cracking passwords and building rainbow tables. Cybercriminals and hackers take advantage of the limited fraud detection capabilities to conduct malicious data hosting, launch dynamic attack points and execute botnet commands. For instance, flash files are commonly used by hackers because they give easy access to malware installation (Grobauer, 2011).

Virtual Machine Attack

Virtualization is a key aspect of cloud computing as the operating system, software, and all assembled components. In order to run specific applications of the client, every user has a virtual machine a Cloud’s virtualized environment. In the operating system of the cloud provider are various VMs running parallel. It is, therefore, an uphill task to control the VMs. It is a monotonous task to identify where a specific target may reside in this vulnerability. It is until one is placed in the targeted area, that a new VM instance is created. In this instance, the code on a VM is run by an attacker to allow an operating system communicate directly with the hypervisor.

Malware Injection Attack

The client’s request is carried out based on authorization and authentication. It is for this reason that there is a huge possibility of exchanging Meta data between a web browser and a web server. During this swap of Meta data, an attacker can take benefit. In this scenario, the malicious code that has been injected is similar to that of a valid instance running. Subsequently, if the attacker manages to access the data, the malware attack will cause the cloud service to suffer from dreadlocks. These dreadlocks alter the normal functions of the system and keep the valid user on hold till the task is completed, which in the real sense is invalid. Such an attack is identified as a meta-data spoofing attack.

Vendor Lock-in

Some vulnerability emerges through undeveloped vendors whose risk of failure is high. Lock-in technique makes a client dependent on a vendor or a services provider. Notably, this result makes the client unable to deal with another provider. Additionally, with only one provider, lack of standards could lock-in a client. However, due to distinct policies and principles that are established by every provider, a client is incapable of easily transferring from one provider to another (Jensen, 2009).

Resource Exhaustion

Notbly, this vulnerability results to failure of discharging resources at a time when they are needed, and causes depletion. It also means that the consumption of various resources is improper. It is, therefore, not easy to identify and observe it, as the specialist closely monitors it.

There is another vulnerability that is  the insecurity of the application programming interfaces. These are the interfaces that are used by data owners to interact with the cloud. In most of the times, these interfaces are not secure. The security of the cloud computing infrastructure will depend on the security of the APIs. There are security concerns about the use of APIs. Some of these include the use of weak passwords, clear-text authentication mechanisms, access control that is not flexible are all issues that could arise with the interaction of APIs (Grobauer, Walloschek, & Stocker, 2011).

Hijacking is a threat that is common and is the responsibility of both the data owner and the cloud service provider. It is important to protect data that is used for accessing the cloud service. It is a threat that is obtained from cyber crime and threats. It is the responsibility of the service provider to ensure that the data and credentials of the data owner are secured and safe. It is also the responsibility of the data owner to ensure that the credentials they use to access are safe and hard to access. This is done by changing the credentials regularly (Dahbur et al., 2011).

There are also insider threats that are possible with public and private clouds. This results when data is presented to the cloud service provider, there is no control of who has access to the data in the cloud. It is important to understand the mechanisms that are provided by the cloud service provider. When data is within the confines of an organization, it will be easy to manage security of the data because employees will be screened to assess the people who might have accessed the data for malicious purposes. With the use of cloud computing, it will be hard to understand and know who has access to the data and will be harder to know who has caused some attack in case it occurs (Subashini, & Kavitha, 2011).

Cloud attacks are not rampant. The reason behind this is because, cloud computing has not been extensively adopted. Attacks that are seen with the use of cloud computing come from loss of data and integrity issues. They arise because of the vulnerabilities which have been stated and mentioned in the paper (Younis, & Kifayat, 2013).

Insecure Interfaces and Application Programming Interfaces

Customers of cloud computing are able to manage and interact with cloud services using APIs and interfaces. It is the duty of service providers to secure their service models since they play key roles in the provisioning, orchestration, and monitoring and management of the processes of running the cloud. On the other hand, customers must be aware of security risks that are associated with the management, implementation, and use and also monitoring of cloud services. Some of the threats facing cloud computing today are advanced and persistent. Lately, insider attacks have become a common occurrence. These insiders have no limitation; they can even access cryptographic files and keys and passwords that can enable them to do all sorts of online evils including fraud, information theft, and damage.

Major Concepts and Remedies

Core technologies of cloud computing are; virtualization, Web services and applications, and cryptography. All of these technologies have vulnerabilities that are rampant in the state-of-the-art implementation of the technology, or are intrinsic. The nature of vitalization is the primary possibility that a hacker or an attacker can escape from an environment that is virtualized.Therefore, it’s worth need for considering that such vulnerability is highly relevant and intrisic to cloud computing (Grobauer, 2011).

Conclusively, Cloud computing is vulnerable to attacks just like any other technology. Most companies prefer to secure their resources and assets than let them reside in the cloud. Users receive many types of services from cloud providers, including; storage capacity and bandwidth. However, some users are provided with a free trial period that gives malicious users and hackers opportunities to easily access the cloud with disreputable intentions. Among the impacts of these attacks include; decoding, cracking passwords and building rainbow tables. Cybercriminals and hackers take advantage of the limited fraud detection capabilities to conduct malicious data hosting, launch dynamic attack points and execute botnet commands. Customers must be aware of security risks that are associated with the management, implementation, and use and also monitoring of cloud services. Subsequently, some of the threats facing cloud computing today are advanced and persistent threats.



Bamiah, M. A., & Brohi, S. N. (2011). Seven deadly threats and vulnerabilities in cloud computing. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Sciences and Technologies, Vol,(9).

Grobauer, B., Walloschek, T., & Stocker, E. (2011). Understanding cloud computing        vulnerabilities. Security & privacy, IEEE, 9(2), 50-57.


Dahbur, K., Mohammad, B., & Tarakji, A. B. (2011, April). A survey of risks, threats and vulnerabilities in cloud computing. In Proceedings of the 2011 International conference on intelligent semantic Web-services and applications(p. 12). ACM.

Grobauer, B., Walloschek, T., & Stocker, E. (2011). Understanding cloud computing vulnerabilities. Security & privacy, IEEE9(2), 50-57.

Latif, R., Abbas, H., Assar, S., & Ali, Q. (2014). Cloud Computing Risk Assessment: A Systematic Literature Review. In Future Information Technology(pp. 285-295). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Subashini, S., & Kavitha, V. (2011). A survey on security issues in service delivery models of cloud computing. Journal of Network and Computer Applications34(1), 1-11.

Younis, M. Y. A., & Kifayat, K. (2013). Secure cloud computing for critical infrastructure: A survey. Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom, Tech. Rep.

Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2012). Addressing cloud computing security issues. Future Generation Computer Systems28(3), 583-592.

Jensen, M., Schwenk, J., Gruschka, N., & Iacono, L. L. (2009, September). On technical security             issues in cloud computing. In Cloud Computing, 2009. CLOUD’09. IEEE International       Conference on (pp. 109-116). IEEE.


Racial and Ethnic Bias in Psychological Tests

Ethnic and racial prejudice in most psychological tests is inferred from the selected differential presentation of ethnic, national or social-racial groups on procedures of psychological basis, such as knowledge and skills, cognitive abilities, or psychopathology symptoms including depression (Cole, 1981, p.2). Historically, the whole idea emerged from efforts to elucidate between the differences in group score on the CAKS tests, commonly of Latino American or African American test takers, as compared to the White Americans (Cole, 1981, p.3).  Concerns later come out emphasizing that the scores were not to be inferred in a similar manner across all groups. The test bias happens when a particular test shows on average lower or higher scores after its administration to unique criterion groups and not to a regular population sample. Negative bias is witnessed when the group gets lower scores while positive bias is when they attain higher scores than average. During the recent past, there have been various attempts to identify how race and ethnicity are related.

Basically, the knowledge would be beneficial to help us understand theoretically how our cultures influence our psychology and personality since the assessment is necessary for accurate diagnosis. The practical value is that an accurate assessment of the bias that lays between ethnicity and the outcome of the psychological tests the diagnosis is appropriate and there is no mal-diagnosis thus ensuring that there are better outcomes (Schmidt & Hunter, 1974, p.33). The stigma is often considered to be associated with some mental disorders, some which are severe, while the more severe findings from the minority groups may end up causing stereotypes and misunderstandings which can cause discrimination of some races and ethnicities (Cole, 1981, p.10).
The racial and ethnic bias can be studied in two categories; trying to affirm that there is biasness in instruments used when conducting psychological tests and attempts to develop ways and means of eliminating this bias which is assumed to exist during the tests. Using racial and ethnic groups, evaluation may be conducted between men and women to understand their differences in performance on different terms (In Paniagua & In Yamada, 2013, p.214). Psychological testing faces a huge challenge because items of the tests differ between different racial and ethnic groups which may cause bias during the tests.

Arguably, there is little accuracy in the evidence which is portrayed on the distribution of races and ethnicities in a population. Nevertheless, not anyone has been able to vividly and convincingly explain that the frequency of which racial and ethnic groups appears in psychological tests affects the results and outcomes of the psychological tests: studies have failed to actually show that there are serious race and ethnic bias in the items of the tests. Most of those who criticize the idea of the presence of racial and ethnic bias in the psychological tests say what the test items say verbally can be objected since it is not familiar as to whether it is from minority or majority races and ethnic groups (Schmidt & Hunter, 1974, p.39).
It may be argued that most people from the majority ethnicities and races view their whereabouts as places of opportunity where they believe that any realistic dream is achievable. Statistical models have been used to evaluate how fair the items are in their psychological thinking. When such methods are used there has been little evidence if presence of bias in such angle of psychology and thinking by test items (Kaplan &Saccozzo, 2013, P.398).
There have been several studies used during the past research where African-Americans were compared on reasons that they are mainly historical and not logical where different items found on this same test were found to be bias. The first article that has clearly shown the presence or racial and ethnic bias in psychological tests is one by the title ‘Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Perceptions of Physician Style and Trust’ by Mark P. Deoscher Et Al. The main objective of the research was to conduct a clear assessment test on whether a person’s race or ethnicity could affect his/her trust on the physician or psychologist (Schmidt & Hunter, 1974, p.73). The article outlines that inequalities in race and ethnicity affects the access to healthcare by patients due to some underlying causes, for example, the perception of the patient on the psychologist (Schmidt & Hunter, 1974, p.74).

The research was conducted between 1996 -1997 on a sample that represented the whole nation in what they termed as Community Tracking Survey. The patients in this research based their ratings of satisfaction based on the trust and style of their physicians (Doescher et al, 2000, p.213). The patients based their satisfaction on the transparency, attention to detail and meticulousness on part of the psychologist. The perception of the patients was measured by the trust he/she had on the physician (Schmidt & Hunter, 1974, p.75). The results were conceptually distinct, since the minority races and ethnicities reported less positive perceptions on the psychologists. This was, however, after taking into consideration any social-economic variables that may have affected the outcome of the research. The research concluded that the positive perceptions by patients from minority ethnic and racial groups were little. The research also concluded that there exist racial and ethnic bias in psychological tests, and it should be explored and dealt with (Doescher et al, 2000, p.213).

In that very article, issues that were related to racial and ethnic disparities in intelligence are dealt with, regarding various group discrepancies. It went further to state that misconception, abilities of patients, their historical circumstances, and factors related with racial and ethnic disparities, educational factors, and other methods affected psychological assessment (Doescher et al, 2000, p.83). It seems that although many studies have been carried out to address this bias, the focus which has been on group disparities has provided unconvincing information. Variables linked with aptitude include procedures of hereditary influences, social and economic standing, home cerebral climate, and scholarly attainment. Enlightening effects of racial and ethnic disparities are renowned, among them concerns relating to cultural bias and a portion of minority and marginalized group members in unique-services categories (Doescher et al, 2000, p.223). The growth of novel alternative modes of assessment and hypothesis-driven dealings is supported.

            In another article by the title ‘Giving Psychological Services to Ethnically, Racially, Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Individuals in Schools’ by Margaret R. Rogers et al, research was conducted in schools. Psychologists who labor in the schools have a moral and a principled and specialized responsibility, to become well-versed about the information base that talks about the provision of psychological aid to minors from different backgrounds (Herek, 1991, p.46). This article clearly shows that (1) a combination of a number of the accessible information about how best to encourage the enlightening and psychological welfare of assorted students and their relatives within the school frame work and (2) proposals for practices for psychologists functioning in the schools (Herek, 1991, p.49).

These proposals for performance are anticipated to deal with specialized issues which, if abandoned in service provision to racially, linguistically, culturally, and ethnically varied populations, can direct to unsuitable referrals for various services, wrong assessments of wants and issues, unsuccessful interventions and curative approaches, and finally flawed research outcomes (Bodenhausen, 1988, p.11). Precise professional doings are acknowledged, and descriptions of those practices are given to assist steer psychologists’ actions and dealings when providing services to different clientele in the schools (Bodenhausen, 1988, p.11). These studies recognize race and ethnicity bias in psychological health care obtained by patients. However, a small number of studies have connected differences in the value of interpersonal concern to patient and physician race and ethnicity.


The purpose of this research is to establish how the race and ethnicity of patients and physicians are related with physicians’ involvement in decision-making styles. The studies were conducted on adults aged 18 to 65 years (mean age, 41 years) who had recently attended 1 of 32 primary psychological care activities associated with a large replica of an entire population, in an urban location. Sixty percent of patients surveyed were male; 40% were white, and 54% were African American. African American clients scaled their visits as considerably less involving than those of whites in models adjusting for patient age, schooling, marriage status, physical condition, and duration of the patient-psychologist affiliation. Patients in race-related associations with their psychologists scaled their visits as considerably more involving, than patients in race-cacophonous relationships. Patient satisfaction was highly associated with fairness score within all race and ethnicity dimensions.

The information for this study was unruffled in the baseline and community tracking survey for a randomized trial assessing an intercession to develop fundamental care on clientele with despair. It acknowledged all major psychological care activities with greater than 200 participants from a great mixed-replica with autonomous practice alliance.

The unique sampling method for clients in the five articles was for the community tracking and baseline surveys to recognize all consecutive psychological clients who visited the psychologist. Race and other demographics were included in the above sampling schemes. The major independent variables incorporated patient race and ethnicity, psychologist’s race and ethnicity, his/her gender, race and ethnicity concordant or jarring in the patient-physician affiliation. Covariates for the psychoanalysis included factors allied to race and ethnicity.

Statistics and data collected during the research conducted in the above articles were used to evaluate the link between patient race and ethnicity bias and the psychological tests. It is also used to evaluate psychologist’s perception on race and ethnicity, his/her race and ethnicity concordance or dissonance in the patient-psychologist relationship. The statistical methods used were preferred over linear regression because of their ability to account for the clustering effects of any existing correlation between patients and psychologists, while generating suitable and strong results.


Individuality of the patient sample is shown in the above research articles. More than half of the patients had been visiting their psychologist for more than three years. The average psychological results were positive, with approximately 62% indicating that their health was good or excellent. Approximately 62% of the clients were visiting a male psychologist, and 38% were visiting a female psychologist. Approximately half of the clients were visiting white psychologist; 25% were visiting African American psychologist, and 28% were visiting psychologists of other ethnic groups and races. There were considerable differences that were evident among patient race and ethnic groups in a number of variables. African American clients were to some extent older, more probable to be female, less probable to be married, less learned, had inferior perceived physical condition, and were more probable to visit African American psychologist than white clients.

The data suggests that African American patients rate their visits with psychologists as less involving than whites. However, patients visiting psychologists of their own ethnic group or race rate their psychologists’ decision-making method as more involving, better and more participatory. Civilizing communication between different cultures, races and ethnicities between principal care psychologists and clients and giving clients access to a varied group of psychologists may result to more client involvement in psychological care, higher levels of client contentment, and better physical condition outcomes.

The above articles have indicated that African Americans and other patients from marginalized and minority ethnic and racial groups often get some degree of difference and less advantageous technical and psychological health care than white Americans. It is doubtful how much of these racial and ethnic differences in mental care and results can be clarified by client’s cultural factors, mental health care, expert biases, or physical condition care system bias. Variations in social and economic status and emotional wellbeing exposure between clients only to some extent explain the experiential racial and ethnic bias in health care.

Race and ethnicity have been mentioned as vital cultural impediments in patient-psychologist communication. On the other hand, cross-cultural aspects in patient-psychologist communication are for the most part unexplored. Difficulties in communication as a result of cultural disparities between clients and psychologists over and over again have a say to a difference in the perceptive that clients and psychologists have always regarded as the origin of ailment and the success of available cure. One study has actually shown that some development of communication when psychologists and clients were of the same race or ethnic group (Bodenhausen, 1988, p.726).Though, the match between the psychologist and client with respect to the expounding model of disease and outlook for the visit were evenly important in determining the result.

Few studies have associated differences in the value of interpersonal physical condition care to clients’ and psychologists’ race and ethnicity or to the ethnic concordance or inharmoniousness in the client-psychologist relationship. This research has established that racial and ethnic bias between psychologists and clients do to a large extent influence psychologists’ communication and his/her way of making decisions. In the mental health study, marginalized clients rated their psychologists’ decision-making methods as less involving than nonminority clients did.

Studies examining the influence of client race and gender on passing information in the therapeutic visit indicate that female clients generally get more information, ask many questions, and have more building of partnership with the psychologists than male clients. Little is recognized about the communication technique and method of female psychologists. A few current studies as illustrated above have indicated that female psychologists show more empathy and involve in more positive conversation, building of partnerships or rapport, interrogation, and speaking compared with their male equivalents.

The value and excellence of interpersonal concern is significant to clients. The above research has shown that rising patient participation in mental care through concession and consensus-seeking raises client fulfillment and good results. Particularly, visits in which the psychologist uses a style of participatory decision making, also known as PDM, are related to higher levels of client contentment. Latest studies of client-psychologist communication in principal care show that there are maximum levels of client contentment and the least level of misconduct with the psychosocial model, which is typified by psychosocial switch over and an almost equivalent allotment of client and psychological talk.

The questions used in the studies above were as follows: (1) Do minority clients or patients rate their psychologists’ decision-making methods as less involving than white clients? (2) Do the clients of minority psychologists rate their psychologists’ decision-making methods as less involving than the clients of white psychologists? And (3) what is the relationship between race and ethnic concordance or cacophonous in the client-psychologist relationship and PDM methodology?

In conclusion, racial and ethnic bias really does exist in the medical realm and especially in psychological tests. These drastically affect the accuracy of the outcome and results to the detriment of the clients. It is so because, as per the research above, the bias affects the relationship between the clients and the psychologists. It also affects the psychologist’s decision-making. The bias is a vice that should be eliminated at all costs when conducting psychological tests to improve accuracy of diagnosis and efficiency of treatment. Understanding the relationship between racial or ethnicity and psychological assessment is very important and has great significance in assuring the assessment is accurate. However, it is a complex challenge to mitigate and detect thus racial bias. The knowledge of this relationship is important in ensuring the results of the tests are constant, and there is no over-prediction or under-prediction of the capabilities and levels of performance of the minorities and majority groups.


Bodenhausen, G. V. (1988). Stereotypic biases in social decision making and memory: testing process models of stereotype use. Journal of personality and social psychology, 55(5), 726.

Cole, N. S. (1981). Bias in testing. American Psychologist, 36(10), 1067.

Doescher, M. P., Saver, B. G., Franks, P., & Fiscella, K. (2000). Racial and ethnic disparities in perceptions of physician style and trust.

Herek, G. M., Kimmel, D. C., Amaro, H., & Melton, G. B. (1991). Avoiding heterosexist bias in psychological research. American psychologist, 46(9), 957.

In Paniagua, F. A., & In Yamada, A. M. (2013). Handbook of multicultural mental health: Assessment and treatment of diverse populations. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1974). Racial and ethnic bias in psychological tests: Divergent implications of two definitions of test bias.





Self Assessment and Career Exploitation

Being in a nursing profession, I have analyzed and evaluated my self-awareness meticulously, and come up the values I uphold, abilities and interests in regard to my career. Self-awareness for every individual is crucial because it is the capacity to identify oneself individually, separate from others and the environment. Knowing myself well has enabled me to make superior career change choices and decisions. It has augmented and greatly boosted my self-confidence levels, and allowed for enhanced job matches. I have continuously built my self-awareness through assessment, self-reflection and feedback (Orton, 2003, p. 43).

My interests are more aligned to technology, in that I love blogging and internet browsing. I also love helping the less fortunate or the sick and doing community service. Since I am a registered nurse, blogging has helped me get exposed to numerous views across the globe and also gain more knowledge from internet browsing (Field, 2009, p.61). My other interest is on aiding humanity and lessening the human suffering in the world. I love doing charity work and helping the less fortunate, like the orphans, or helping the sick since it is my passion making the world a better place.

Abilities that I consider myself having are being proactive and a go-getter in nature. I can multi-task and work in a challenging environment, and these have helped me in my career progression because I require no supervision or follow up. Being a nurse has enabled me to realize that I have an un-exploited capacity to work best under pressure without experiences stresses that can hinder my performance. My values are humility and hard work, and are aligned to my goals and objectives in career advancement.  In the profession of handling patients, being humble is a prerequisite, but to me, humility and hard work have been my culture since childhood.


As I went through the career exploration and self assessment, the career that I decided to pursue was in the field of healthcare and helping others that is, being a nurse. The process that I used to settle with the decision of being a nurse was by job analysis. I considered my weaknesses and strengths and used them to determine my best fitting career. The job description is important in linking one’s strengths and abilities in line with his passion and also considering the weakness, which usually help in avoiding future problems or failures.

This particular career decision that I made was the best decision that I have ever made. No regrets on the part of my career path because it is what I love doing and my passion. Considering that I love helping others, categorically what pleases me is mending and ensuring that people are happy and well again, so being a nurse has enabled me have a chance to do what I like and I am very happy for that.

This career choice is a reflection of what I am and the choices that I have made have revealed the true me. My values are hard work and humility, this is who I am and through that I have the passion of helping others and very ambitious. Being a nurse thus complements my likes and strengths. My abilities, including multitasking and working in an interesting and challenging workplace make me most suited in a hospital setting helping others because it is my delight. Finally, my interests are learning new things; this is the reason as to why I keep myself updated with the internet and love blogging as a hobby. From these experiences, everyday is a learning experience making me very knowledgeable.

In the next five years, I see myself having more responsibility and having considerably advanced in my career and being in a top management position. In this position, I hope to earn more money, and make a change for the better in the lives of the many people in the globe. In the next ten years, my ambition is to own a reputable hospital and save many lives.

The how-to is not very complicated since it entails a chain of events and planning, that will allow the realization of the goal. Achieving more responsibilities and better financial rewards in the next five years will be possible by integrating my values of humility and hard work in my career, and also exploit on my abilities and interests into diversifying my skills to be more competitive. Hard work is very important in any career and by using hard work as my core virtue in the work environment, and then I will be noticed as the most competent person and be recommended for any possible promotions.          The ten year goals are long term and time being an important factor, I will have achieved my dream of establishing my own hospital. This will enable me to have more responsibility and help many people. Through my savings and donor funds, I will get enough financial capital and established a hospital and with time it will grow into the best health care provider in the world by observing integrity. By my good rapport which I will have built over the years, I will be able to partner with many stakeholders who will support me in my initiative for the best course in society.

Barriers are prone to happen while trying to achieve set goals. The most probable barriers to face my short–term goals of five years are; lack of motivation and frequent discouragement from other parties, change in career path can also be part of the discouragement from attaining the goals, and also a serious competition faced by other visionary individuals in search of career development. In the long term career goals, the most likely barriers to encounter are; lack of funds in establishing such a big project and might fail or the funds to be misappropriated by the developers. Another barrier to consider in pursuing my dream is by government restricting the establishment of the hospital by legal obstructions due to lack of meeting the requirements (William, 2012, p. 78).

In order to mitigate or overcome these challenges, the measures to be taken will include; effective partnership with relevant stakeholders and partners so as to meet the requirements to establish a reputable hospital. In case the funds will be insufficient, loans will be taken and capital from well wishers or partners in realizing the long term goals. To make a goal be relevant even after many years, motivation is required (Weishapple, 2001, p. 32). To enhance motivation, I will reward myself on attaining other short term objectives and punish myself if I fail to attain the set objectives. This will help me to be focused and do my best in trying to achieve the goals. Change in career path can be mitigated by restricting yourself and staying true to your objectives and plans. Shifting from one career to the other might make one lose sight of the bigger picture and by avoiding this, maintaining the career path is advised. Competition will always be there, so in order to manage it, career development in terms of education advancement is required to remain relevant and at par with the competition (Sukiennik, 2013, p. 22).

The career that I am considering is, nursing top management such as being a nurse manager and entrepreneur after owning my own hospital. The skills required to develop this particular career is a vast knowledge and experience in the nursing field. This will be achieved by working in a nursing position as I am currently doing and advancing my education level to improve mu academic qualifications. Already, I am a registered practicing nurse who has the relevant experience in the nursing field, with a bachelor’s degree in nursing. Problem solving skills are also very significant in the career that I am considering. My experience has provided me with all that and also the ability to handle difficult people and work in a challenging work environment.

Career evaluation and self assessment therefore, is a critical aspect in gaining better knowledge and awareness of oneself. It is sad to have ignorance and lack to know the things that you really like or dislike. It is bad to be hooked in a career that you were forced into or landed on it by mistakes. Self awareness also helps in the planning for the future and with this; progress is effectively made as compared to someone who does not take the initiative of their career exploitation.



Sukiennik, D. (2013). The Career Fitness Program: Exercising Your Options. Upper Saddle         River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Orton, D. J. (2003). Building professionals: Creating a successful portfolio. Upper Saddle River,   N.J: Prentice Hall.

Sukiennik, Diane, Raufman, Lisa, & Bendat, William. (2012). The Career Fitness Program +       New Mystudentsuccesslab 2012: Exercising Your Options. Addison-Wesley.

Field, S. (2009). Ferguson career coach: Managing your career in the computer industry. New     York, NY: Ferguson.

Weishapple, C. (2001). Introduction to legal nurse consulting. Albany, NY: West/Thomson           Learning.

A Long Way Gone

A Long Way Gone
A Long Way Gone an interesting and true story of Ishmael Beah, who during the civil war in Sierra Leone, becomes an unwilling boy soldier. The book illustrates ways in which children have turned soldiers of choice. Therefore, the book describes what war is like particularly through a child soldier’s eyes, how one becomes a killer, and how novelists and journalists have put much effort to depict their lives. Although the book is painful to read and comprehend the story, it is interesting how the story flows as Ishmael narrates his story. He chronologically relays his life, starting in his home village. Ishmael and his friends started a journey to find their families miles away. Although it was a dangerous and long road, the team encountered numerous challenges in their journey to find a safe place to stay. The bigger section of the book talks about their struggles, going hungry, and wandering where they met with hostility at worst and suspicion at best (Beah 22).
At only 12 years of age, Beah’s experiences and journey transformed him from a kid who was always mesmerized by dance, to an internal refugee who wondered from one village to the other in a county that was full of sociopathetic and army forces. Despite loving some aspects in his life, Beah’s adventurous and innocent life is destroyed by rebel forces who destroyed his village and this forced him to vacate to a safer place. Later on, Beah is recruited by the national army where he learns to shoot an AK – 47 after becoming a fool soldier. He defends his rebel group and turns to killer in the name of protecting his team. Markedly, it is a transition from an innocent to a notorious killer who is addicted to killing. He later leaves the forces and is taken to a rehabilitation centre where he imagines a future after struggling to understand his past. However, he is able to open up forgiveness and an understanding after finding compassion and love from a nurse at the rehabilitation centre. He is later welcomed by his family in some special place in Freetown where he is saved by their kindness and support. He later reenters a word of civilians who
Beah is invited to New York together with his friends to narrate their story to the United Nations where he learns that others like him somehow managed to survive after suffering for a long time. Notably, Beah goes through a coherent transition that changes his life, understanding, and perception of others (Beah, 88). The books taught us about destiny, focus, and the struggles in life that Beah goes through. Ideally, the book is more of a lesson about life, the choices we make, and the repercussions we get for choosing a particular path in life. On the face of it, this book brings about many ideas, questions, suggestions, comments, and considerations that are of paramount importance. For instance, I keep asking myself why Beah turned against other human beings after joining a rebel group and why he later joined the forces and defended it so much with all his might. I now understand quite well that life unfolds in stages and transitions to a point of self actualization.

Works Cited
Beah, Ishmael. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. London: Fourth Estate, 2007. Print.
Beah, I. (2007). A long way gone: Memoirs of a child soldier. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux.

Aspect of Group Work Practice

Aspect of Group Work Practice
Group Practice
A group simply means several individuals who join hands to accomplish a specific goal or task. Groups are the fundamental expression of human relationships. The greatest power of a man lies in groups. Group practice is the aspect of practicing social work. The goal of groups is to develop members through the growth and enjoyment provided by both social and program relations. Like other aspects of social work including community organization, social casework, research and administration, social group aims at providing the information of the underlying applies and social sciences including knowledge to ideal social programs of wide ranging social agencies. Social work practice particularly with groups creates the significant impact of groups on people (Carnwell, 2004, p. 22). Additionally, it makes use of group processes to attain groups and individual objectives.
Working in groups is normally presented as a coherent way of increasing productivity and dividing work. It supports use of wide-ranging experiences, skills, and knowledge that people have. Groups are formed for different agendas, some are formed to accomplish long-term goals, ambitions, and objectives as people from one common unit. Others form groups for social reasons to share responsibilities and tasks that are rather intricate or demanding. Ultimately, groups are a phenomenon that boosts people in many ways, socially, mentally and financially. Therefore, groups are formed for enhancing growth and self-worth at different levels in life.
Groups are a symbolic part of human experience that allow individuals to develop larger-scale and more complex activities. They provide settings where relationships thrive and people can find support and help. Additionally, they are coherent sites of education and socialization. Through groups, many people find direction in life, while others identify their strengths and weaknesses. Groups are practiced to attain independence whether financial, social or socio-economic.
Task Group
A task group is similar to a work group but it operates within a larger organizational framework. Therefore, a task group is held accountable of making certain contributions to the objectives of the parent organization. A task group is comprised of people who jointly work to attain a narrow range of goals in a specified time. Usually, task groups are normally referred to as task forces. Various task groups follow progressive responsibilities including pension review board, while others are simply familiarized with short-term tasks such as preparing new product proposals.
Primarily, task groups are designed to assist individuals, committees, task forces, community organizations, planning groups, and other similar groups to develop or correct their functioning. In some cases, task groups are formed to curb domestic in families. For instance, tasks groups such as Women’s aid, and the domestic and sexual violence task group address domestic issues such as domestic violence in families. These groups aim at developing wide-ranging initiatives and preventative services for young people and children to develop a huge element for responding to crisis (Corey, 2011). Ideally, the focus is on the processes and application of principles of group dynamics that may foster accomplishment and improve practice of identified work goals. The group appoints members and later assigns them tasks and goals to be accomplished. Some examples of assigned tasks include the improvement of a production process, the development of a new product.
Task groups have greatly intervened in domestic violence by assisting the victims get justice through legal measures. NGO’s are working with these task groups to ensure that victims of domestic violence are assisted by all means. Lately, human service workers are being requested to assist in improving evaluation and program planning in organizations. Whether the creation of these task groups is to meet various needs of clients or for the for the purposes of organizations, the ultimate task of these groups is for solving problems and making decisions. In some instances, individuals involves in task groups want to get started and get to business immediately, however putting much focus on the task at hand could result to problems for the entire group. For instance, the failure of a leader to attend to recurrent factors creates more chances for the group to result in failure and mismanagement. Subsequently, the group could become overly focused with concerns of content. Collaboration is hindered once interpersonal issues within the group are overlooked. There is a likelihood that goals of this group will not be met. Hence, it is paramount that group leaders identify the importance of relationships and process are key to achieving the objectives of the task group (Forsyth, 2009 2).
It is the responsibility of the leader to assist participants of the task group in comprehending how interest and consideration to this agenda straightforwardly relates to accomplishing the goals and purpose of the group. Seemingly, the balance between process and content in task groups is easily attained through attending to the action, warm-up and closure guiding principles. After doing this effectively, chances are that the task groups will be productive and successful.
Professionals working in the community are frequently called upon to exercise their expertise to meet the community’s needs. Ideally, task groups have wide-ranging uses particularly in community intervention. Most people face problems that arise from being disenfranchised either as members of the community or as individuals. However, the biggest challenge faced by professionals who engage in community work is assisting the community and individuals in gaining access to resources that are valued in better enfranchisement. It is paramount for group workers to comprehend factors such as sociopolitical influences impinge on individual experiences from different ethnic and racial groups.
Ideally, working with the community could mean working in a situation or within a specific group where collaborating or competing groups are dealing with wide-ranging issues in a community. Usually, most work in community change is worked out in skills and small group context (Hepworth, 2010, p. 65).
Dynamics of Task Group
Task group dynamics refers to the behavioral and attitudinal characteristics of a task group. Usually, group dynamics concern ways in which groups form, how they function, their process and structure. Task group dynamics are significant in both informal and formal groups of every type. Group dynamics of task groups is concerned with how and why task groups form. In a nutshell, task group dynamics are the changes that take place within the task groups and is concerned with the forces and interaction obtained between members of a group in social settings.
Task group dynamics is a study of forces that operate within a task group. A group does not necessarily mean persons having similar features. Fr instance, a collection of beggars or students does not necessarily form a group. On the face of it, these are just classes. Markedly, a group is only formed when two or more people, interdependent and interacting, who join hands to achieve a specific objective. There are several ways of identifying a group; one is through studying the cognition of every member in the group and the perception of the group to identify other persons existing for every member psychologically. Another way of identifying a group is through an analysis of the group and the character of every member to determine if a particular individual fits as a member.
Group dynamics is concerned with how and why task groups develop. There are various theories that elaborate why groups develop. These theories include the classic theory, social exchange theory, and social identity theory. All these theories are under the dynamics of a task group or the disciplines in these groups. Ideally, there five key stages for developing task groups: forming, storming, adjourning, and performing. In all these stages, group members have a role of addressing various issues. Subsequently, the manner in which these issues are verified determines if the group will thrive and achieve its tasks. The first stage when creating a task group is forming. It is the initial stage that is characterized by some uncertainty and confusion. However, the key goals of the group are yet to be established. Therefore, forming is a period of orientation where members learn new stuff, share expectations about the group, and know one another. It is systematic stage and it should not be rushed because openness and trust must be developed (Hollingshead, 1993). These feelings are significant as they strengthen the other stages of development.
Dynamics of task groups are determined by the structure of the group. Group structure is basically a blueprint of relationships among that unites the group and enables it to achieve assigned objectives. Disciplines associated with the dynamics of task groups include group roles, group cohesiveness, and group norms. Group size varies from 2 to many people. Group roles on the other hand are roles that are assigned and predetermined to members. Every role has specific duties and responsibilities. Member of the group who experience ambiguity usually have feelings of dissatisfaction and frustration that ultimately lads to turnover.
In some cases, role conflicts happen when inconsistencies between the role behavior and the perceived role happen. Lastly, task group cohesiveness is the bonding of group members and their aspiration to continue being part of the group. Ideally, the more cohesive the group is, the more difficult it is to obtain group membership. In task groups, cohesiveness has numerous effects including lower turnover, worker satisfaction, higher productivity and absenteeism.
Advantages and Disadvantages of a Task Group
When group members first consider using group-based learning strategies, the proposed task becomes manageable. In some cases, members of the task group get worried about much of their delivery time. In some cases, members of the task group get concerned about the time to develop or design group based actions and activities into their delivery plan. One of the major disadvantages of task groups is non-productive members who sorely depend on others’ contribution. In these instances, there are relatively more chances for conflict to emerge among group members. Subsequently, decision-making takes longer time than expected because every member of the task group believed that he or she is entitled to his or her opinion and so, conflict of interest develops and hinders growth.
Consequently, there is room in every task group for segregation of individuals to take place. Ideally, some members of the group may not concur with others mostly because of the fact everyone could have a different opinion. During this time, less extroverted members could be hesitant in contributing ideas and opinions because they feel rather intimidated. For instance, when deliberating on projects to start, introverts are likely to back down or contribute less as they feel that their contribution may not amount to anything much. On the other hand, more extravert individuals could have more time to choose the project they feel is best for them without considering the presence of the inactive members. Arguably, the feeling of intimidation among certain members in a task group is one of the major factors that hinder growth and development. Another disadvantage of task groups is that a trainer could need to provide leadership as a way of intervening. In such situations, various task group members may feel oppressed and undermined by a newbie. In task groups, it is often easier for members to avoid doing working by letting us do it instead. Hence, coming to an agreement could be difficult. Subsequently, things could get out of hand and even rowdy.
On the other hand, more ideas can be generated in a task group. This is because every member has a unique idea; hence, there is greater diversity of options and ideas. The availability of more people makes work easier and it is even best because tasks are easily completed. As a result, greater socializing and networking opportunities are realized. In task groups, there are more opportunities for sharing knowledge and skills as learners get chances to know each other better. Therefore, in large groups, learners could feel more safe (Stewart, 2014, p. 8).
When teams have a prospective to improve the lives of individual members, every member is hopeful to gain much. However, if it is not operational, it can demoralize some members or even make them feel unimportant and inferior. As a result, they are discouraged from accessing their strong qualities and this makes them contribute less. Subsequently, good teams are beneficial to the members as they make the most of individual talents. Task groups boost members in many ways. They make people work together towards a common agenda and the more people work together, the more they step away and learn exclusively to become better workers in their workplaces.
To conclude, Social work practice particularly with groups creates the significant impact of groups on people. Groups are a symbolic part of human experience that allow individuals to develop larger-scale and more complex activities. They provide settings where relationships thrive and people can find support and help. Task groups have greatly intervened in domestic violence by assisting the victims get justice through legal measures. Women, young people and children can today walk into a well-established organization and have their issues solved in accordance with the law. There are several ways of identifying a group; one is through studying the cognition of every member in the group and the perception of the group to identify other persons existing for every member psychologically (Watson, 1993). However, in task groups, cohesiveness has numerous effects including lower turnover, worker satisfaction, higher productivity and absenteeism.

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